At Cefaclor it is an antibiotic that belongs to the group of cephalosporins. The drug is primarily used to treat bacterial respiratory infections.
Cefaclor is the name of a cephalosporin that comes from the 2nd generation. The cephalosporins are classified as beta-lactams. They can be administered both as tablets and in the form of infusions.
The development of the cephalosporins took place from a substance contained inside the fungus Acremonium chrysogenum. The antibiotic substance was discovered in Italy in the 1940s. The positive effect of the active ingredient on typhoid was also of interest to medicine at the time.
Over time, some laboratory changes were made to the cephalosporins, so that numerous improved medicinal substances could be produced. This includes cefaclor, which came onto the market in Europe in the 1970s. It is found in a wide variety of generic medicines these days.
The antibacterial mode of action of Cefaclor corresponds to the effects of the other cephalosporins. The antibiotic disrupts the cell wall synthesis of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. By impairing the cell wall structure of the bacteria, they can no longer multiply undisturbed.
Because so that the bacteria can increase their growth, they are forced to dissolve their cell wall in special places with the help of enzymes. If the growth is successfully completed, you can rebuild the affected areas and network. Because of this continuous process, the bacteria have the ability to adapt well to different environmental factors.
If the enzymes that take over the rebuilding of the cell wall are inhibited by Cefaclor, this does not lead to a direct death of the bacteria, but they are no longer able to multiply. This gives the human immune system the opportunity to act against and end the infection.
One of the properties of Cefaclor is a pronounced stability against the penicillases of gram-positive bacteria. However, the stability of the antibiotic against plasmid-coded beta-lactamases is classified as low.
The absorption of cefaclor into the organism takes place in the upper intestinal region, where the active ingredient largely passes into the blood. After an hour the blood level is highest. Since the active ingredient is quickly distributed in the tissue, it can no longer be detected in the blood after 4 to 6 hours.
There is no direct breakdown of cefaclor from the body. However, the drug exhibits chemical instability when dissolved in water. This forms inactive decay products, the majority of which are excreted in the urine.
Cefaclor is suitable for the treatment of acute and chronic bacterial infections. These are primarily diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract such as sinusitis (sinusitis), pharyngitis, tonsillitis (tonsillitis) and otitis media.
Other areas of application are inflammation of the urinary bladder or urinary tract, kidney infections, soft tissue inflammation, infections on the skin and the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea (gonorrhea).
It is important that the patient adheres to the prescribed duration of the cefaclor therapy. This also applies if the symptoms improve, as otherwise the bacteria could become resistant to the active ingredient.
As an aqueous solution, Cefaclor only has a limited shelf life. For this reason, the antibiotic is given as a capsule, tablet, effervescent tablet or dry juice. The patient fills up the dry juice with a little water before taking it. This creates a cefaclor juice.
The recommended dose for children and adolescents older than 10 years is 500 milligrams of cefaclor to be taken three times a day. If necessary, the treating doctor has the option of increasing the dose to 4000 mg cefaclor daily. The antibiotic is taken during meals with plenty of fluids. The duration of cefaclor therapy varies between 7 and 10 days.
One in about 10 to 100 patients can expect unwanted side effects from taking cefaclor. These are primarily rashes on the skin, redness, itching, hives, a swollen face, puffiness, inflamed kidneys, anemia and drug fever.
In addition, the patient's blood count can temporarily change. These include an increase in special white blood cells, leukopenia (a decrease in white blood cells), a reduction in granulocytes or a lack of blood platelets.
In rare cases, patients experience loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Even allergic shock is possible.
If longer therapy with cefaclor takes place, there is a risk of the colon becoming infected with bacteria or fungi, which is noticeable as an inflammation of the intestine. Cefaclor treatment should then be stopped immediately.
Cefaclor must not be administered if the patient is allergic to the active ingredient. The same applies to hypersensitivity to other cephalosporins. If there are other allergies or asthma, the patient must discuss this with the doctor before treatment.
Cefaclor is also not suitable for the therapy of babies. A doctor must be consulted during pregnancy and breastfeeding. In this way, Cefaclor can penetrate through the amniotic fluid to the unborn child. According to the current state of knowledge, known damage has not yet resulted from it, but therapy with the antibiotic may only be carried out with a doctor's permission.