DNS is the German abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. They are three-dimensionally structured compounds built from numerous equal parts from which chromosomes, mitochondria and chiroplasts develop. So is with one DNA test the genetic makeup of a person or animal is determined, examined or broken down.
The DNA test is also called DNA test, Genetic test or Genetic analysis called. DNA is found in the chromosomes of all cells, so it follows that all hereditary material is made up of DNA. To obtain a DNA sample, a saliva sample is sufficient, which is taken from the oral mucosa with a cotton swab. A drop of blood or a hair is also suitable for the test.
To obtain a DNA sample, a saliva sample is sufficient, which is taken from the oral mucosa with a cotton swab. A drop of blood or a hair is also suitable for the test.
A DNA test is done for different reasons. The test can answer questions about kinship, such as whether a child's parents are the birth relatives. Paternity tests are being carried out more and more often to clarify the maintenance obligation. Private individuals also use the DNA test in family or genealogical research to clarify their relatives.
The DNA test is particularly important in research when it comes to determining the causes of a disease and predicting the personal risk of developing a genetic disease or of passing it on to one's own children. The "Association of German Human Genetics" has drawn up a list in which all hereditary diseases that can be reliably diagnosed with a DNA test are listed. Food inspectors use DNA analysis to track down genetically modified foods that are banned from being imported. At the same time, they want to ensure the quality of the food.
The criminal police use the DNA test to secure and assign crime scene traces and to solve murders.Thanks to the "genetic fingerprint", not only have perpetrators been convicted, but it has also been repeatedly established that the death penalty has occasionally been wrongly carried out in the USA.
In order to avoid diseases in unborn children, parents should in future be given the opportunity to carry out a genetic diagnosis on the embryo in order to prevent giving birth to a seriously ill child. In this context, one speaks of pre-implantation diagnostics, the prescription of which is not yet regulated and is still prohibited by law. There is still general disagreement about which tasks the ethics committees that are still being planned should take on. In our neighboring countries, pre-implantation diagnostics, also known as PGD, are allowed. It is planned in Germany to set up an ethics committee for each federal state. This should belong to the State Medical Association, which rejects the proposal.
Violations of the PGD prohibition are punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to one year. Exceptions exist if the parents are seriously genetically ill and there is a suspicion that their children will also suffer from the hereditary disease. Likewise, couples with a genetic disease can have a pre-implantation diagnosis carried out if they expect a stillbirth or miscarriage.
The limited PGD is possible in Germany without penalty. If an embryo has been created in a test tube, it may be examined for hereditary diseases before it is implanted in the womb.
Numerous scientists dispute the effectiveness of genetic analysis in healthcare. They question the connection between genetic disposition, medical diagnosis and the symptoms of the disease because they fear that the pressure to succeed to produce statistical evidence is too great.
They are convinced that illnesses arise primarily through personal lifestyle and external influences and are less determined by genes. They also criticize the fact that private users in particular use a DNA test often do not know that DNA samples can be changed by incorrect storage and falsify the test result.
All the results of a genetic analysis allow conclusions to be drawn about the relatives. This fact is an underestimated risk when looking for clues at a crime scene. If a suspect is subjected to a DNA analysis, the relationship can also come under suspicion. The Federal Court of Justice in Karlsruhe therefore decided that the related family members of an alleged perpetrator should not be examined. The DNA sample taken may only be compared with the DNA trace at the crime scene.
Experts are concerned that the ability to analyze DNA samples more easily can lead to major errors.