Dentistry understands the dynamic occlusion the contacts of the teeth that are made by moving the lower jaw. Dentists diagnose normative or deviating dynamic occlusion with the help of a special film that takes the impression of the teeth. Disorders of the dynamic occlusion can cause complaints that can spread to the whole body and make it difficult for patients to localize the actual cause of their complaints.
Dynamic occlusion describes a certain type of tooth contact. The teeth of the upper jaw touch the teeth of the lower jaw.
Dynamic occlusion describes a certain type of tooth contact. The teeth of the upper jaw touch the teeth of the lower jaw. In the counterpart of dynamic occlusion, static occlusion, this tooth contact exists due to the natural position of the jaw in the resting state. In contrast, dynamic occlusion is preceded by movement of the lower jaw. It therefore does not represent a permanent state, but describes a temporary phenomenon.
In the past, dentistry understood the occlusion to mean the jaw position in the final bite position; today, however, the term is used more generally by those skilled in the art. The final bite position or maximum intercuspation is the jaw position in which most of the teeth of the upper and lower jaw touch.
Dynamic occlusion is very important so that the jaw and teeth can work properly. The places where the teeth of the upper jaw touch the teeth of the lower jaw are called occlusion points in dentistry.Their number can differ between different individuals as well as their exact position: Not every set of teeth has the same occlusion points without this having to be a fundamental problem.
A special occlusion foil helps to diagnose the occlusion. Further names are test foil, articulation paper and contact foil. Manufacturers coat the thin occlusion film with colored particles to make the results of the bite more visible. The diagnostician places the foil between the upper and lower jaw in the patient's teeth and asks him to bite down as usual. The occlusion foil holds the impression of the teeth like a carbon paper and thus makes the occlusion points visible.
There is disagreement within dentistry and dental technology as to what the optimal occlusion should look like. For example, experts have different opinions about how many occlusion points are optimal in dynamic occlusion.
The opposite of occlusion is nonocclusion, which is a malfunction of the jaw. A misalignment of the teeth or the jaw can also cause the nonocclusion, as can disturbances in the jaw movement in the dynamic occlusion.
Dentistry requires the occlusion diagnostics described above in order to recognize complaints and treat them correctly. Furthermore, the exact examination results play a role for dental technicians, who can, for example, make a prosthesis on the basis of this data.
Modern software uses the results of the diagnostics to create a virtual model that is also based on exemplary tooth models, which are called "library teeth" in dental jargon. In this way, the software adapts the desired aid or dentures to the individual needs and dimensions of the patient. In addition, the digital model calculates how static and dynamic occlusion change through the use of the dental prosthesis. This gives dental technicians the opportunity to model the occlusion points.
Incorrect processes in connection with dynamic occlusion may lead to increased mechanical stress on the chewing surfaces of the teeth. As a result, the teeth are under higher or uneven pressure or they rub against one another unexpectedly. This can cause damage such as abrasions and cracks.
Dynamic occlusion disorders can also manifest themselves in the form of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). Craniomandibular dysfunction is a collective term for various disorders of the temporomandibular joint and the jaw muscles. CMD can also cause a disturbance in dynamic occlusion.
CMD has the potential to cause a variety of ailments that are not necessarily related to the jaw. Misalignments of the jaw or occlusion disorders cause fine adaptations throughout the body. For example, an inclined occlusal plane can cause the jaw muscles to contract unfavorably in order to avoid painful conditions. This may result in a changed head and neck posture, which can lead to slight misalignments in the shoulder and back area. In this way, many parts of the body seem to be affected by symptoms, the cause of which lies solely in a disturbed dynamic occlusion. Patients therefore often cannot classify the symptoms correctly or attribute them to other causes.
Symptoms of CMD include pain and tension in the jaw, face, shoulders, neck, and back, as well as migraines and other headaches. Furthermore, tinnitus, eye and ENT complaints can manifest themselves. Even digestive problems, sleep disorders, and general musculoskeletal disorders can be traced back to CMD.
Critics criticize the inadequate training of dentists with regard to craniomandibular dysfunction: The clinical picture is not sufficiently taken into account in medical training. This would lead to unnecessary misdiagnosis and too often the actual cause would go untreated.
CMD allows for various treatment options when it occurs as a result of a dynamic occlusion disorder. This includes, among other things, orthodontic measures and prostheses. Overall, CMD is widespread in the general population with an incidence of around 8%. However, craniomandibular dysfunction only leads to symptoms that require treatment in around 3% of cases.