A Dyslipoproteinemia is when the ratio of certain proteins (proteins) in the blood serum is disturbed. There is a genetic (primary) form as well as a secondary variant that occurs in the context of another, underlying disease. In the latter, treatment of the underlying disease is usually necessary to treat dyslipoproteinemia; In many cases, an adapted diet and possibly drug therapies contribute to the treatment.
Dyslipoproteinemia does not always manifest itself in specific symptoms; under certain circumstances it is almost symptom-free, but can still lead to physical impairments unnoticed.
Dyslipoproteinemia is a disorder of the protein composition of the blood serum. Often an increased concentration of proteins is responsible for this incorrect ratio - a so-called hyperlipoproteinemia. Dyslipoproteinemia, however, describes a more general condition, as the ratio of proteins in the blood serum can also be due to other disorders.
Doctors differentiate between different forms of dyslipoproteinemia: Primary or hereditary dyslipoproteinemia is due to genetic causes and can also manifest itself in various sub-forms. Secondary or acquired dyslipoproteinemia, on the other hand, usually occurs in connection with other diseases (e.g. metabolic diseases).
Primary dyslipoproteinemia is based on a genetic defect in the genome of the affected person. Doctors therefore also refer to them as hereditary or hereditary dyslipoproteinemia. In this case, an autosomal hereditary disease that the parents can pass on to their children is responsible for the disruption of the protein ratio.
The inheritance is dominant: One affected allele is sufficient for the disease to manifest itself in the affected person. If one parent suffers from primary dyslipoproteinemia, not all children have to fall ill as well, since humans have a double set of chromosomes and, in addition to the disease-carrying allele, there can also be a healthy variant of the gene in the chromosome set.
In contrast to the primary form of the disease, secondary dyslipoproteinemia is usually due to another underlying disease. Doctors therefore occasionally speak of acquired dyslipoproteinemia. For example, a typical underlying disease is diabetes. This is a metabolic disease that is characterized by a disruption of blood sugar regulation and can be due to permanent malnutrition, among other things.
Dyslipoproteinemia does not always manifest itself in specific symptoms; under certain circumstances it is almost symptom-free, but can still lead to physical impairments unnoticed. Primary genetic dyslipoproteinemia sometimes leads to the development of xanthomas in the skin, which are orange-yellow in color and may show up as small lumps on various parts of the body.
If dyslipoproteinemia is not treated, for example because it is symptom-free and therefore remains untreated, diseases of the cardiovascular system can result. In the long term, dyslipoproteinemia can also lead to various other diseases, for example arteriosclerosis.
Doctors may order a blood test to diagnose dyslipoproteinemia and other lipid metabolism disorders. In the laboratory, various blood fat values are measured, including the determination of the cholesterol value; significant deviations in certain measuring ranges provide indications of dyslipoproteinemia or other clinical pictures.
They can be noticed during routine examinations, during examinations as part of an underlying condition such as diabetes, or when symptoms suggest dyslipoproteinemia. The course of dyslipoproteinemia depends largely on early detection. If left untreated, the disease can lead to various complications, but if diagnosed early enough, patients can often control dyslipoproteinemia well.
Dyslipoproteinemia can lead to various complications, which mainly depend on the underlying disease. Treatment with medication or a strict diet is usually possible and leads to a positive course of the disease without reducing life expectancy. Symptoms do not occur in all patients.
For this reason, the diagnosis of dyslipoproteinemia is often too late. Only in rare cases do those affected suffer from yellowish skin and lumps. These lumps can occur in different places and are often not directly associated with dyslipoproteinemia.
In the worst case, the disease can also lead to problems in the cardiovascular system, which can lead to a heart attack or arteriosclerosis. Dietary changes and an overall healthy lifestyle can reduce symptoms of dyslipoproteinemia.
The patient may also have to reduce their excess weight in order to reduce and prevent heart problems. In some cases, treatment with medication can also take place. As a rule, there are no further physical restrictions or complications.
If orange-yellowish xanthomas continue to form on the skin, this indicates dyslipoproteinemia. Medical treatment is necessary if the fat deposits appear on different parts of the body and do not go away on their own after a few days. If cardiovascular diseases become noticeable as a result, a doctor must be consulted. If there are signs of arteriosclerosis, the dyslipoproteinemia may already be well advanced - in this case go to a general practitioner immediately and have the cause of the symptoms clarified.
In the event of a heart attack, the emergency doctor must be called. People who already have a serious illness such as diabetes are particularly at risk of developing dyslipoproteinemia. Serious consequences such as a heart attack primarily affect people who are overweight and people who generally lead an unhealthy lifestyle. If these risk factors apply to you, you should speak to your family doctor immediately if the signs of dyslipoproteinemia are mentioned. Other contacts are the specialist in hematology or - in the event of a medical emergency - the medical emergency service.
Treatment of dyslipoproteinemia depends on the triggering conditions and individual disease factors. Doctors cannot treat the cause of primary dyslipoproteinemia because it is caused by a genetic defect. In many cases, however, patients can at least partially control the disease through a special diet and in this way also reduce the risk of secondary diseases and complications.
Patients should not only eat calorie-conscious, but also pay attention to low-fat and low-cholesterol foods and preparations. Doctors also often recommend patients to reduce any excess weight they may have. An active lifestyle and avoidance of tobacco, alcohol and similar substances can also have positive effects on the development of dyslipoproteinemia.
In addition, various drugs that belong to the cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (CSE inhibitors) can participate in the therapy of dyslipoproteinemia. Cholesterol absorption inhibitors, nicotinic acid, bile acid complexing agents, fibrates and others may also be considered.
However, only the attending physician can decide which treatment makes sense. The aim of the various measures is to compensate for the disturbed composition of the blood serum; lowering blood lipids may help.
Dyslipoproteinemia is a disease that is considered incurable. Acquired as well as genetic forms of dyslipoproteinemia can be treated symptomatically, but a full recovery does not occur with current medical possibilities.
The patient can do a lot for his health through a special diet. A diet that is particularly high in protein and low in calories leads to the alleviation of the symptoms. The nutrition plan is usually worked out with the patient and tailored to the needs of the organism.
Depending on the intensity of the complaints, some patients need to change their diet in the long term to improve their wellbeing. No further medical treatment is necessary for them. In most cases, however, long-term drug treatment is also prescribed. This ensures that imbalances are quickly corrected and that no further complaints arise.
The prognosis worsens as soon as the patient also suffers from a chronic disease. In the case of diabetes, for example, the stage of the underlying disease is decisive for the further course. With a disciplined approach to medical guidelines and a healthy lifestyle, a good quality of life can be maintained over a long period of time. However, if the progression of the disease cannot be contained, the patient is at risk of premature death. Additional cardiovascular diseases are also unfavorable.
Prevention of dyslipoproteinemia is especially important for people who are at increased risk of developing the secondary form. This includes, for example, people who suffer from diabetes. The effective treatment of the underlying disease is essential in order to avoid secondary diseases and complications, including dyslipoproteinemia.
In particular, the conscientious intake of necessary medication and the implementation of dietary recommendations play an important role. Eating a healthy and balanced diet and getting enough exercise can help prevent dyslipoproteinemia. In addition, abstaining from alcohol and tobacco appears to have a positive effect on reducing the risk of illness.
Since dyslipoproteinemia is a serious and serious disease, it must be treated primarily by a doctor. As a rule, self-healing cannot occur, so that the focus of this disease is in any case an early diagnosis with subsequent treatment. Whether dyslipoproteinemia will reduce the life expectancy of the person affected cannot generally be predicted.
If you want to have children, genetic counseling can also be carried out for this disease in order to prevent the disease from being passed on to your descendants. Those affected with dyslipoproteinemia are definitely dependent on a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet. As a rule, alcohol or smoking should be avoided.
Sports activities have a positive effect on the further course of dyslipoproteinemia. In many cases, however, those affected are also dependent on taking medication. It is important to ensure the correct dosage and regular intake. Furthermore, the blood values should be checked regularly by a doctor in order to identify possible deviations at an early stage.
Dyslipoproteinemia can be genetic as well as the result of another underlying disease. The disease is not always accompanied by noticeable side effects, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications in the long term, in particular to disorders of the cardiovascular system or to arteriosclerosis. In any case, those affected should promptly take adequate countermeasures.
Genetically determined dyslipoproteinemia cannot be treated causally. Regardless of the cause of the disease, the patient can, however, contribute significantly to improving his state of health through a healthy lifestyle, in particular through a specific diet.
The most important step towards self-help is developing and implementing a nutrition plan that is tailored to the needs of the disease. Above all, a diet that is low in fat and cholesterol is important. Fatty, high-cholesterol foods such as meat and sausage products, butter, cream, but also most sweets and snacks, must be consistently avoided. Whole grain products and plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables should be eaten instead. Low-fat methods such as water cooking or steaming must also be preferred when preparing food.
In any case, those affected should seek advice from a nutritionist and have a nutrition plan drawn up. Overweight patients are also well advised to start a weight reduction diet as soon as possible. A nutritionist can provide you with competent support here too.