Mostly sees Epistaxis worse than it actually is. Just a few drops of blood from the nose can soak several tissues. The causes of nosebleeds can include nasal contusions, nose picking (especially in small children, also objects that are put into the nose) or side effects of blood-thinning drugs (e.g. ASA).
First aid measures for nosebleeds. Click to enlarge.
In general, nosebleeds rarely occur when the nasal mucous membranes are sufficiently moistened. A sufficient intake of at least 2 liters of fluid per day is important for this.
Especially in the cold season, the room air should not be too dry due to the heating; a room humidifier or an evaporator may be helpful here. The use of a saline nasal spray can also help moisten the nasal mucosa. The so-called saline solution can be very easily prepared yourself with a teaspoon of salt in 500 ml of boiled water.
If the nosebleed is over, coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose should be avoided, at least for a short time, as otherwise the bleeding can start again due to the dissolution of a blood clot.
As a quick help with nosebleeds, ice packs can be placed in the neck or witch hazel compresses can be held on the bleeding nostril. Due to the cooling effect, the blood flow slows down due to the constricting blood vessels.
The easiest remedy for nosebleeds is to squeeze your nose closed for about 10 minutes in a bent position. If that doesn't help against the nosebleed either, some gauze can be stuffed into the nostril. Here, too, the nose should still be closed.
The gauze should then remain in the nose for about 2 hours, even after the nosebleed has passed. If the bleeding does not stop even then, a visit to a doctor is recommended. The doctor will then professionally treat the blood vessel and usually obliterate it.
In addition to prescription and non-prescription drugs, there are also home remedies that are effective for nosebleeds. Lemon juice and / or lavender oil can be dripped onto a cotton ball or a piece of paper tissue and put into the nostril. Vitamin C is also a tried and tested home remedy and is used to strengthen the walls of the blood vessels. In addition, it is a component of collagen, which ensures that the mucous membrane of the nose is moist.
Vitamin C is found in oranges, kiwis or grapefruit, as well as in various types of vegetables. Furthermore, preparations with flavonoid, which have a vascular sealing effect, are also available in the pharmacy.
If people suffer from frequent and also unprovoked nosebleeds, very heavy nosebleeds, high blood pressure, kidney disease, blood clotting disorders or arteriosclerosis, a doctor should be urgently consulted if a nosebleed lasts longer than 10 minutes. If a nosebleed occurs after a blow to the head and it is also watery, a doctor should definitely be consulted, as watery blood can also indicate cerebral fluid. Patients suffering from Osler's disease should also be careful with nosebleeds. Osler's disease is a vasodilatation in the nose, lungs or brain that is genetic.
A cotton ball soaked in lavender oil provides quick relief.
The same preventive measures apply to those affected, such as keeping the nasal mucosa moist or eating a healthy diet with lots of vitamin C. In Osler's disease patients, too, sclerotherapy can be a solution to the "nosebleed" problem. It is observed that older people in particular are increasingly suffering from nosebleeds. This is mainly due to the fact that the blood vessels become more fragile with increasing age. An examination by an internist may be indicated here in order to correct the problem of the nosebleed.
In general, the following applies to nosebleeds: keep calm and do not lean your head back. In the past, this was often a tried and tested home remedy. It has since been found that the bleeding increases when the patient is lying on his back and when the head is tilted back.
In addition, blood often runs up to the throat, which is harmless, but is usually uncomfortable and can also lead to nausea and vomiting.