In the Larva migrans cutanea it is a skin disease. The disease is usually caused by the larvae of a specific type of hookworm. The larva migrans cutanea is sometimes also called Skin mole designated. In warmer zones, the larva migrans cutanea is one of the skin diseases that occur with the greatest frequency. In some cases, tourists in the respective countries get a larva migrans cutanea.
In addition to hookworms, some roundworms are also possible pathogens that cause a larva migrans cutanea.Humans become infected with the parasites by walking barefoot over the excrement of animals or paths contaminated with the corresponding pathogens.
The first description of the Larva migrans cutanea took place in 1874. In 1928 the responsible larvae were identified. Basically, it is a skin disease that is triggered by parasites. The larva migrans cutanea is caused by different types of parasites.
For example, hookworms, horsefly larvae and the tumbler fly are possible causes of the disease. In the majority of cases, however, the causative agents of the larva migrans cutanea are hookworms. The human being is a false host and not the actual target host of the parasites.
The majority of the pathogens are native to tropical or warm regions. For example, the parasites live in some areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The species can also occur in Mediterranean Europe if the temperatures are high enough.
Various types of parasites can be considered as causes for the development of the larva migrans cutanea. As a rule, these are the larvae of various worms or flies. For example, hookworms such as Ancylostoma braziliense or Uncinaria stenocephala trigger a larva migrans cutanea if the patient is attacked as a false host.
However, since humans are not the sought-after target host of the parasites, the larvae do not develop completely in the human organism. They do not form in the body as adult worms. In addition to hookworms, some nematodes are also possible pathogens that cause a larva migrans cutanea. Humans become infected with the parasites by walking barefoot over the excrement of animals or paths contaminated with corresponding pathogens.
The complaints that appear in the context of the larva migrans cutanea are diverse. In most cases, symptoms are concentrated in the lower limbs, back, and soles of the feet. The first signs of the larva migrans cutanea often appear hours to days after infection with the corresponding parasites. The affected people often feel intense itching.
The diseased areas of the body and skin usually swell, with typical reddening. The reddened areas of skin are reminiscent of serpentines because they correspond to the paths of the larvae. Often these passages of the parasites can be seen under the skin even without a magnifying glass. As a result of the infection, the affected regions usually become severely inflamed.
However, the inflammatory processes usually remain localized. In some cases the passages of the larvae under the skin are not clearly recognizable due to swelling and reddening. The symptoms are particularly common on the soles of the feet, with the infection mostly occurring while walking.
In addition, the back is often affected by the larva migrans cutanea when the patient lies naked on the sand. In the majority of cases, the larva migrans cutanea heals by itself after a few weeks. In rare cases, healing takes two years.
Consult a doctor if there are typical signs of the larva migrans cutanea. Although the larva migrans cutanea often heals by itself, a visit to a doctor is advisable. Because in some cases less harmless causes are hidden behind the symptoms, which are similar to those of a larva migrans cutanea.
The doctor will take a medical history, discuss the medical history, and ask the patient about past activities and places where the parasites may be native. This gives him relevant details that make it easier for him to make the diagnosis. Larva migrans cutanea is usually diagnosed based on the obvious signs.
However, secondary infections make diagnosis more complicated. In principle, clinical examination methods are mainly used. The characteristic appearances on the skin, especially the burrows of the larvae, usually point relatively clearly to the larva migrans cutanea. However, it is difficult to identify the larvae responsible.
Due to the larva migrans cutanea, there are primarily various complaints on the skin of the person affected. In most cases, the patients suffer from itching and also from severely reddened skin. Because of the scratching, the itching is usually only made worse. Likewise, the patients often suffer from reduced self-esteem or from inferiority complexes and feel uncomfortable with the symptoms.
This can also lead to depression or other psychological upsets that have a very negative effect on the quality of life. It is not uncommon for swellings to appear in the affected regions. This can lead to various restrictions in the everyday life of the person concerned. Self-healing of the larva migrans cutanea does not usually occur, so that the person affected is dependent on treatment by a doctor.
Treatment of this disease takes place with the help of various drugs and does not lead to special complications. The discomfort on the affected skin areas will disappear. However, the larvae under the skin still have to be removed. The life expectancy of the patient is not influenced by the larva migrans cutanea.
If itching, pain, or redness is noticed in the area of the back or the soles of the feet, a larva migrans cutanea may be the cause. The family doctor should be consulted if the symptoms have not subsided after a few days. If the affected area becomes infected, it is best to seek medical help immediately. The same applies if the passages of the parasites can be seen from the outside or there are other warning signs of a worm infestation.
The doctor must be informed at the latest when a severe discomfort, increasing itching or emotional distress occur. Although the larva migrans cutanea often heals by itself, the parasitic disease should be clarified. People who can attribute an infestation to a specific cause such as a vacation in a possibly contaminated region or contact with infected animals should inform their family doctor about this and carefully monitor the affected skin areas. If there are abnormalities or the state of health deteriorates, the worm larvae must be removed with medication or surgery. Sick people can consult their general practitioner, dermatologist or internist.
In principle, the larva migrans cutanea heals by itself in numerous cases and therapy is not necessary. However, self-healing can sometimes be delayed and treatment is required. In addition, drugs are sometimes used to alleviate the acute symptoms.
As part of the external treatment, the patients receive an ointment containing thiabendazole. This is applied to the affected areas of the skin for a few days. If the inflammation is particularly severe, ointments containing glucocorticoids are also used. As a result, the skin areas usually swell.
When internal treatment is required, thiabendazole is often given. Surgical interventions to remove the larvae from under the skin are also possible. However, there is a risk of scarring, so drug therapy is the method of choice.
The prognosis of the larva migrans cutanea is favorable. Spontaneous healing can be documented in the further course of a large number of patients. Often the changes in the complexion of the skin regress within a few weeks without the aid of medicines or other medical treatments. The itching decreases and the reddening of the skin and swelling go away. Most of the time, the symptoms are free of symptoms.
In some cases, however, there is a delay in the healing process. These patients tend to develop a chronic skin disease. If desired, medical care can help alleviate the symptoms of this disease process. A full recovery is usually achieved within two years, even with complications or unfavorable courses.
The itching and scratching of the skin can lead to long-term changes in the skin's appearance. Even if the condition is cured, there is a chance that scarring may remain. The scars do not represent a disease value and only very rarely lead to impairments in coping with everyday life. If desired, the visual abnormalities can be treated with laser therapy.
The course of the disease is generally improved if the person affected has a stable and healthy immune system. At the same time, you should refrain from using perfumed creams or other skin-irritating products.
The larva migrans cutanea can be prevented by refraining from risky behavior in the relevant countries. It is advisable to use towels as a base on sandy beaches.
In most cases, there are no special follow-up measures available to those affected by larva migrans cutanea. Therefore, in the case of this disease, a doctor must be consulted very early to prevent further worsening of the symptoms. It cannot heal on its own, and further complications can occur if the larva migrans cutanea is not diagnosed in good time.
Most people affected by this disease are dependent on taking various medications and also using special ointments. The patients should always pay attention to correct application and also to correct dosage. In the event of side effects or other uncertainties, a doctor should always be consulted first.
If the larva migrans cutanea is to be treated by an operation, the person affected should rest after the operation and take care of his body. In doing so, you should refrain from exertion in order not to unnecessarily burden the body. Since the disease can also lead to a significantly reduced aesthetic appearance of the person affected, intensive and loving discussions with close relatives or with one's own family are often very useful.
In many cases, the disease can be prevented by observing and following high hygiene standards. The person affected should always disinfect their hands before ingesting food and liquids. It is also important that holidaymakers only lie on a towel, especially on beaches, and do not lie directly on the sand.
Treatment of the disease is usually carried out by the patient himself with the help of creams and ointments. These must be applied regularly and thereby alleviate the discomfort considerably. The swelling also subsides. If the larvae have already penetrated under the skin, a diagnosis and treatment by a doctor is essential. This avoids further complaints and complications. In some cases self-healing can occur, whereby the risk of further spread of the larvae is relatively high and should therefore not be taken.
In most cases, the larva migrans cutanea has a positive course of disease so that no special treatment is necessary in the future. If itching occurs, the person concerned should not scratch the skin, as this only exacerbates it. Parents must prevent scratching, especially in children.