Man is a mammal and was created by nature with an amazingly perfect working lung equipped, which is needed for breathing. The lungs are therefore one of the organs that are vital and, under certain conditions, can also become ill.
Schematic representation of the anatomy and structure of the lungs and bronchi. Click to enlarge.
In medical terminology and in anatomy, the lung also as pulmo- designates and serves for the vital gas exchange. Under these circumstances, the first breath, which is taken through the lungs, begins right after birth.
In order to be able to maintain the rather complicated function of the lungs, this large organ, which fills almost the entire chest, is connected to both the upper respiratory tract and the central organ, the heart. In addition, the lungs are protected by the ribs. The lungs are an extremely well-supplied body organ.
From a visual point of view, the lung tissue looks like a medium-red sponge, which consists of two paired lungs. The lungs are divided into lung again the so-called smaller lung segments. In each wing of the lung, the right and left lung, there are 10 lung segments, with only 9 lung parts being arranged due to a special anatomical condition in the left wing.
The part of the lungs that appears stronger, known as the lung trunk, is represented by the windpipe. The lung trunk divides into the so-called main bronchi. The main bronchi fill the right and left lungs, respectively. Further down, the bronchi branch out more and more. The alveoli are formed from the bronchi directly in the tissue of the lungs.
The alveoli are also known as alveoli. This is where the actual gas exchange takes place in the lungs. For this reason, the alveoli of the lungs are covered with the finest blood vessels. Several alveoli form alveoli in the lungs.
The main tasks of the lung consist of "exchanging" oxygen-poor blood from the body for oxygen-rich blood. This means that deoxygenated blood becomes enriched with this vital gas by absorbing oxygen through breathing.
When the deoxygenated blood arrives in the alveoli, it is rich in carbon dioxide. This must be exhaled through the lungs. Both the oxygen and the carbon dioxide are absorbed by the hemoglobin bound in the red blood cells. The erythrocytes are supplied to the lungs in the blood stream by the pumping action of the heart and enter the capillaries. These surround the alveoli and gas exchange takes place directly at the border between the alveoli and blood vessel.
The lungs not only ventilate the entire body, but also the heart. If the carbon dioxide from the blood were not exhaled through the lungs, this would lead to suffocation and poisoning in the organism. In the function of the lungs, a distinction is made between a pulmonary and a body circulation. There is also mucus in the lungs, which does a certain cleaning job for what is inhaled.
In connection with the diseases of the lung The focus is on both acute and chronic diseases. Acute diseases, such as pulmonary embolism or pneumothorax of the lungs, often arise as a result of other underlying diseases.
If the lungs themselves become ill, this can be expressed in the form of tumors manifested in the lungs or pneumonia. If it comes from diseases of the lungs, which are triggered by inhaled particles, a so-called dust lung develops. If the disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses are involved, tuberculosis can occur.
Not only bacterial and viral germs, but also individual fungi are responsible for a disease of the lungs. Hereditary diseases of the lungs such as cystic fibrosis with an increased build-up of mucus in the lungs must also be treated.
Allergies and asthma are counted among the diseases of the lungs that have become more and more common recently. These are triggered both by natural substances in the air we breathe and by aggressive irritants. In addition, so-called pulmonary emphysema is also a typical disease of the lungs.