As Nervous disorders These are disorders of the psyche that usually have no physical cause. However, nervous disorders can also occur in connection with illnesses which, due to their symptoms, can trigger mental disorders.
Toxins and viruses in the body can cause changes in nerve cells.
In addition to various mental disorders, special forms such as neurosis and psychosis are generally considered to be nervous disorders. They are often colloquially referred to as mental illness or psychological illness. The term nerve disorders is therefore used as a collective term for many forms of mental disorders. This can also include extreme forms of nervousness and inner restlessness.
In contrast to a neurosis, in which there are no physical causes, however, a psychosis is often linked to physical dysfunction. Roughly, one can say that anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders are typical in neuroses, while psychoses are characterized by a disturbed perception of reality.
An additional difference between a psychosis and a neurosis is that patients with neurotic traits are aware of their nervous condition, whereas a psychotic thinks they are healthy.
Usually the causes of nervous disorders are of an emotional or psychological nature. Especially when the causes are caused by severe nervousness, inner restlessness, fear, anxiety disorder, hysteria, stress, hypochondria or compulsions, one often speaks of neuroses (e.g. anxiety neurosis, heart neurosis). Nervous disorders can also be triggered by long-term grief (e.g. in the event of death or lovesickness).
Even if it is now out of date, Sigmund Freud in particular provided a wide variety of theories on the causes of nervous disorders. He attributes the mental disorders primarily to suppressed fears, early childhood development disorders and sexual problems as causes. According to Freud, the processing of the psyche in the subconscious is particularly important.
Nerve disorders can also occur in the context of illnesses. Certain toxins (e.g. toxins) and viruses in the body can cause changes in the nerve fibers or nerve cells, which can then trigger lasting nerve disorders.
Nervous disorders lead to serious interpersonal complications. The person affected suffers from mood swings, irritability and often aggressive behavior. Misunderstandings, conflicts and quarrels arise. In severe cases, loved ones break up. This leads to a further decrease in the joy of life.
There is grief over the loss. The consequences are apathy, loss of appetite or a melancholy mood. In some cases the behavior is completely reversed. A withdrawal becomes anger. Excessiveness can develop into whiny behavior. It is not possible to say in advance which emotions or behavior are triggered by the affliction.
Medication is often given if the nerve condition is treated. These have side effects that also trigger a change in behavior and mood. During therapy, the person concerned often deals with issues and events in his life. Longings, emotional injuries or trauma can be uncovered and lead to further emotional fluctuations or moodiness.
In some cases there is an occupational disability, social withdrawal or isolation. Other mental illnesses can develop, which are treated in parallel. In severe cases, a nervous breakdown occurs. The patient is hospitalized for some time for his own safety.
The question of when symptoms require medical treatment can only be answered on a case-by-case basis. One patient should identify all issues. It is important to carry out a needs-based and comprehensive risk assessment. It is advisable to go to a doctor in case of doubt. However, not every symptom requires treatment. From a medical point of view, many ailments do not require treatment.
If a nerve condition is suspected, it must first be taken into account that there are no physical causes. A visit to the doctor is therefore not mandatory. As a rule, a visit to a psychotherapist is advisable instead. He is able to classify the complaints described and can thus refute or confirm the suspicion. A psychologist can also make a diagnosis by using professional testing procedures.
In contrast to a psychotherapist, in the absence of a license to practice medicine, however, he is not permitted to initiate treatment. For this reason, it makes sense to see a psychotherapist who is allowed to work both psychologically and therapeutically. This is the only way to ensure that treatment and diagnosis come from a single source.
Since a nervous disorder cannot be diagnosed by laypeople and does not initially show any physical symptoms, most patients first go to the family doctor. This acts as the first point of contact. If he suspects a nervous condition, he will refer to a therapist, psychologist or psychiatrist.
Nervous disorders should definitely be examined and treated by a doctor or specialist (psychologist). The doctor will ask many questions about the circumstances and also perform tests to determine the exact cause. Since the causes of nerve disorders can be so diverse, the therapy and treatment options are also very diverse. Usually the general practitioner will refer you to a psychologist or psychotherapist. He will then initiate therapies specially tailored to your case. Autogenic training and progressive muscle relaxation are mostly used successfully in psychotherapy.
Medication is initially not recommended. However, the attending physician will also use psychotropic drugs (e.g. antidepressants, neuroleptics or psychostimulants) if necessary. However, herbal remedies such as valerian, lemon balm and hops are preferable.
The course of the nervous disease always depends on the physical and psychological characteristics of the patient and of course on the severity of the symptom. As a rule, the nerve ailment is mainly characterized by inner restlessness, which can be exacerbated by certain factors such as stress. In addition, there is constant nervousness, which leads to exhaustion and irritability. It is not uncommon for the nervous disease to lead to burnout if it is not treated.
If the course is severe, other symptoms can also occur, such as panic attacks or obsessive-compulsive disorder. The patient suffers from a reduced quality of life and may no longer be able to easily go to his job.
Treatment takes place with medication and through discussions with a psychologist. However, treatment can take several months if the nerve condition is relatively severe. Whether the treatment will really be successful cannot be universally predicted. The patient himself has to make an effort and show his will. If the discussions are unsuccessful, antidepressants and other drugs can be used.
In the case of nervous disorders, there are a few options available to take action yourself. However, self-help can never replace medical treatment; it can only supplement it. Nervous disorders pose a difficult task for those affected. It is therefore important to optimally supply the body with nutrients. Diet plays an important role here. Foods like fish, nuts and rapeseed oil are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These strengthen the body's nerve cells so that they should be consumed more intensively.
In addition, it is important to ensure an adequate vitamin intake. Vitamin A supports the body in defending itself against free radicals. Vitamin C supports the production of adrenaline and strengthens the immune system. It is found in fresh fruits and vegetables. The B vitamins are also of particular importance. These are known as "nerve vitamins" and are found in lentils, yoghurt, beans, eggs, sunflower seeds and walnuts.
In addition to a balanced diet, a healthy lifestyle should also be observed. Those affected by nervous disorders should get enough sleep, reduce their stress level and avoid the consumption of addictive substances such as alcohol or cigarettes as far as possible.