Leap is a type of locomotion that has many forms. It occurs in everyday life, but is also part of many sports.
Jumping is a complex process, which is characterized by the fact that the body is pushed off the ground with one or both legs more or less forcefully and reaches a trajectory.
Jumping is a complex process, which is characterized by the fact that one or both legs push the body more or less forcefully from the ground and reach a trajectory. The final step is the landing, which can be very diverse and may only be reached after a fall phase. Depending on the objective, height, width or a combination of the two dimensions can be achieved by jumping.
The power impulse for lifting comes from the legs, but other parts of the body are also involved in the development of the jump. Movements of the upper body and arms can contribute a certain amount of force and make the mechanical conditions more favorable.
The calf muscles provide the main starting energy, actively supported by the hip and knee extensors. In the case of strong jumps, from a biomechanical point of view, it is more beneficial if the movement comes from a slightly pre-stretched position of all muscles involved. The knee, hip joints and upper body start from a bent position, the arms from a lower position. All components are more or less stretched at the same time while jumping, the arms are moved upwards or upwards forwards.
In everyday life, jumping is often used to overcome obstacles. Depending on the height and depth, the jumping intensity is very different. Easy jumps are also known as hops and occur, for example, when crossing puddles. The hands can be used for support when negotiating walls and fences. Children consciously use jumps in certain types of games such as jumping rope, rubber twist or heaven and hell.
A mostly intense form of jumping comes into play in protective reactions. Fast evasive movements in front of obstacles that suddenly appear require quick and energetic action.
Numerous sporting activities are characterized by jumps or include them. Almost all ball sports contain jumping elements, which are characterized by the simultaneous overcoming of height and width, although the vertical aspect often predominates. Most of the time, the energy from running is used for movement. These activities include the headers in soccer, the jump throws in handball and the often spectacular jumps in basketball. In volleyball, climbing up to block or smack is characterized by a purely vertical movement, which is initiated by a strong pushing step and supported by intensive arm use.
The athletic disciplines long, high and triple jump already have the term that characterizes them in their name. In order to gain height, the energy of running is converted into vertical energy by stopping the ankle on one side. The strong stretching movements of the trunk and the raising of the arms are important components for the height of the flight path and the execution of the movement.
In the long jump disciplines, the energy of the fast run-up is implemented much more directly. There is no stopping when jumping, but an impression forward and upwards, through which the running energy is converted into flight energy. The height development is significantly lower than with the high jump. In some sporting activities, the jump is used as a start for a fall phase. The jumpers do this very intensively, using the elastic springboard to a great extent to first reach a lot of height before the execution and development of the fall phase begins.
Injuries to the musculoskeletal system can either directly or indirectly prevent or significantly impair jumping through the pain it causes. This includes all types of muscle injuries, not just to the legs but also to the trunk area. Torn muscles or torn muscles in the calf and front thigh muscles are just as much a part of this as those in the abdominal or back muscles.
Fractures are an absolute barrier to jumping, regardless of whether they occur on the foot, leg bones, vertebral bodies or the ribs.
Specific injuries that make jumping impossible include an Achilles tendon tear or a complete rupture of the patellar tendon. In addition to the pain, these traumas result in a total loss of function of the associated muscles.
Degenerative diseases also significantly hinder jumping. Painful arthritic changes in the hip or knee joint progressively limit all joint and muscle functions in the respective area. Motor activities, which include jumping, can be performed less and less and, depending on the intensity, sooner or later no longer possible at all.
Lumbago as a result of intervertebral disc degeneration in the lumbar vertebra area suddenly leads to convulsive rigidity, which mainly affects abrupt and rapid movements such as jumping.
All neurological disorders that affect motor function negatively affect the ability to jump. Peripheral nerve lesions lead to flaccid paralysis of the supplied muscles. If the muscles that are responsible for jumping are affected, this has negative consequences for this movement process.
Coordinative disorders, such as those that occur after a stroke or in the context of other neurological disease patterns with central nervous damage, no longer allow jumping.
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the fact that locomotion gradually becomes more and more difficult as the drive to move is lost. Even walking becomes more difficult as the movements gradually freeze.
With increasing age, the ability of all muscles to act decreases. This has consequences for all movement processes, especially for those that are carried out quickly, vigorously and with high intensity. The amplitude of movement when jumping becomes smaller and smaller and the execution more difficult and strenuous.