If a person sustains a wound, it sets Wound secretion formation a.
Wound secretion is also known as wound fluid and is a watery secretion that can, but does not have to, escape from a wound. The size, the condition and the degree of cleanliness or the contamination with germs play a role. In the event of contamination, there is always the risk of prolonged wound healing, secondary infections and blood poisoning.
Wound secretion is also known as wound fluid and is a watery secretion that can, but does not have to, escape from a wound.
Wound secretions are formed due to various processes. Due to the skin defect, the body begins to produce more lymph fluid. The composition can vary widely, it often contains proteins and occasionally blood. If an infection is present, the secretion contains the corresponding microorganisms and the body's own defense cells. The excretions of the viruses and bacteria form pus.
Wound secretions are classified into different types. Outward secretions that are caused by inflammation are called exudate. They contain a high concentration of proteins and can be viscous or thin. The color varies from clear to yellowish to a reddish tone. It depends on the components, for example whether it contains many white or red blood cells.
Macromolecules such as blood cells or proteins penetrate through the vessel wall into the surrounding tissue or onto the tissue surface. Exudates are subdivided into purulent, bloody, fibrinous or serous exudates according to their components.
Wound secretions that are not secreted outside but inside the body and form a cavity there are called seromas. This often occurs around wounds on the surface of the skin, for example after an operation. There is a swelling, which is usually not painful and not discolored. However, wound healing is impaired as the pressure on the tissue reduces blood flow. In the further course bacteria can form and it can lead to inflammation.
The formation of wound secretions is an important function in the healing process. Germs and foreign bodies that can otherwise cause complications are flushed out of the wound. Cells and hormones of the immune system are involved in this, in order to kill bacteria or viruses that have invaded and to stimulate the healing process.
The blood components emerging from the tissue initiate wound closure. The exudative phase in wound healing is also known as “tissue penetration”. It is the prerequisite that dead tissue is flushed out and cell growth is stimulated. The body needs a warm and humid environment for cell division, the wound surfaces must not dry out.
Superficial wounds are closed by coagulated wound fluid, scabs form. Wounds that constantly secrete a lot of fluid cannot crust and are very difficult to heal. Too much secretion is a breeding ground for bacteria. Wound dressings with different properties and different methods are intended to support healing. For example, if too much secretion is formed, absorbent wound dressings or gauzes are used. Uninfected, cleaned, dry wounds are kept moist.
If the wound secretion cannot drain away, complications often arise. If a wound secretes purulent secretion inside the body and thereby forms an encapsulated cavity, it is called an abscess. Abscesses are often caused by bacterial infections, but there are also abscesses that do not contain bacteria. These are known as sterile abscesses. Abscesses can be continuous or in chambers. They can spread further and take on considerable proportions.
In the course of the process, the tissue can become encapsulated, the fluid can calcify or fistulas form through which the secretion can drain. Abscesses can occur in the skin, but also in almost all organs. Abscesses are usually opened surgically so that the wound fluid can drain outwards.
If wound secretion flows into an existing body cavity, for example into a joint space, it is referred to as an effusion. If a collection of pus is encapsulated, it is called empyema. This can be done either in an organ such as the gallbladder or in body cavities such as the maxillary sinuses, for example. Imaging methods such as ultrasound or X-rays are helpful for diagnosis. Empyema is usually treated by surgical removal and, if necessary, with antibiotics and drainage.
So-called phlegmon can develop as a further complication. The purulent wound fluid spreads in the connective tissue, in and around muscles, fasciae and tendons. Phlegmon are symptomatic of a considerable impairment of the general condition, fever over 39 ° and a painful, reddish, overheated swelling. The infection spreads and thus destroys body tissue. In the course of this, it can lead to a purulent meltdown of the tissue, which in turn leads to the death of the tissue.
If a phlegmon is not treated or only inadequately treated, there is a risk of blood poisoning, which can be life-threatening. Abscesses can form, which can affect muscles, tendons and the abdomen.
Phlegmon are primarily treated with medication. A high dose of antibiotics, possibly also local antiseptics and immobilization are the top priorities. Furthermore, the affected area can be surgically opened and cleared.
If the wound fluid contains a high proportion of red blood cells, or if blood leaks from injured vessels into the surrounding tissue, it is known as a hematoma. Hematomas are usually caused by external force such as blows, bumps or falls. They can also occur after surgery. A hematoma can be very swollen and painful, but it usually heals on its own.