The medical term blood pressure refers to the pressure that the blood exerts on the blood vessels. However, the pressure conditions are by no means identical in all areas of the blood circulation. The low pressure area is where the blood flows to the heart. The high pressure area is in the arterial part, where the blood is pumped into the body. With the normal measurement, which is carried out routinely, two meaningful values are always determined. A distinction is made between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure.
The systolic value results from the contraction of the muscles in the left ventricle. The blood is then suddenly pumped into the main artery. The blood flow to the coronary arteries almost stops for a split second. The blood pressure in the vessels briefly rises sharply. The maximum pressure reached gives the upper value. This is always mentioned first when measuring. The normal range is 120 mmHg. and it is always significantly higher than the diastolic blood pressure.
Only when the heart muscle relaxes does the blood flow really get going again. Now the phase of diastole sets in. The ventricle fills again with blood from the atria. The coronary arteries are supplied. The pressure on the vessel walls decreases. This lowest value is called the diastolic blood pressure, too Residual pressure, designated. The normal range here is 80 to 89 mmHg. (Unit of measurement: millimeters of mercury).
An important function of diastole is not only that the heart is filled with blood during this phase, but also that the coronary or coronary arteries are supplied after the blood has been expelled. The diastole alternates regularly with the systole. The diastolic pressure must not be permanently increased, as this would have a negative effect on the coronary heart system. It provides information about how well or poorly the coronary arteries are being supplied.
Diastolic pressure is very important in several areas. Especially with younger people, an increased value must be taken into account. It offers reliable information about whether there is a risk of high blood pressure, because it often begins at a young age with a one-sided increase in the lower value.
However, diastolic blood pressure should not be neglected either with older people. This value is particularly important for people with coronary heart disease, i.e. damage to the blood vessels. The reason for this is that the blood vessels must be particularly well supplied with blood in the low-pressure phase. Irregularities here can be very dangerous. For example, if the diastolic pressure is too high, the risk of a dangerous bulging of the main artery can increase.
The ratio of the upper and lower blood pressure values can also be important. The greater the difference between the systolic and diastolic values, the more dangerous the health consequences. Too great a pressure difference puts additional strain on the blood vessels, and the risk of chronic heart failure increases.
What is certain is that both a permanently elevated diastolic blood pressure and an excessively high systolic value can lead to hardening and damage to the arteries. These changes impede blood flow and, in the worst case, result in a heart attack. High blood pressure is a widespread disease that is decisively promoted by unhealthy living conditions, overweight, stress, too little exercise and many other factors. There may also be a genetic predisposition. High blood pressure contributes significantly to the development of heart and circulatory diseases.
In contrast to low blood pressure, which is uncomfortable but hardly dangerous, uncomfortable symptoms quickly occur if the values are too high. Dizziness and exhaustion can occur, concentration decreases and the vessels are permanently overloaded.
Other unclear complaints can be visual disturbances and headaches, which mainly occur in the morning. If you are short of breath after exertion or you even get cardiac arrhythmias, this is a sign that the body is not supplied with sufficient oxygen and blood. All of these symptoms can be triggered by high blood pressure.
If the increased diastolic values are not treated, the arteries become calcified and the vessel walls thicken. By reducing the diameter of the blood vessels, the blood volume decreases. This can lead to various health problems. Among other things, the water excretion of the kidneys is reduced. A permanent increase can also damage the blood vessels in the eyes and brain.If the coronary arteries are affected, the chest can become tight, which is definitely a warning sign.
In general, when measuring blood pressure, the diastolic value should not exceed 90 mmHg. From a medical and scientific point of view, the same importance is attached to both blood pressure values. Most people diagnosed with high blood pressure have both levels elevated. Treatment is essential. If only the lower value is above the normal range, another underlying disease can also be the cause.