A Peptide bond serves to create a connection that leads to the formation of so-called peptides. Peptides take on a wide variety of vital tasks in the body. Peptides are compounds that are similar to proteins, but smaller. They usually contain less than 100 amino acids. Since most peptides fulfill vital tasks in the body, a disruption in the peptide bond, which prevents the formation of these important protein compounds, would be very harmful or even life-threatening.
Peptides are compounds that are similar to proteins, but smaller. They take on the most varied of tasks in the body that are vital.
In an organism, a single peptide bond connects the carboxyl group of an amino acid with the amino group of the α-carbon atom (also called α-carbon atom) of another amino acid. This bond is called an amide-like bond.
In the form of pure transcription, compounds with individual peptide bonds may also develop in organisms. However, polypeptide chains are normally formed in the body. This process takes place in the ribosomes.
Before a peptide bond can occur, it is necessary that the reactive groups are activated beforehand. This happens with most peptide bonds in the human body or that of other living beings through the action of enzymes.
If the possibility of peptide binding did not exist, humans would not be viable because no peptides could be built up. There are many different peptides in the human body that perform very different tasks. The most important of these should be mentioned here.
The peptide calcitonin regulates calcium metabolism via the thyroid gland. Endorphins are also peptides and can be very important in certain situations, for example in the body's own pain reduction.
The insulin produced in the pancreas also belongs to the peptides and is there to regulate the uptake of glucose. The peptide parathyroid hormone is produced in the parathyroid gland. Together with the other peptide, calcitonin, it is necessary, among other things, to regulate calcium metabolism, but it also fulfills many other tasks in the entire intermediate metabolism.
For growth processes and the mode of action of hormones, peptides are required, which are known as somasostatin. For the physical and also the mental development of humans opioid peptides are required, which have similar properties to morphine in the body, but in this case are not harmful, but vital.
All peptides that are used in the human body in the form of vasilidators or neurotransmitters are also essential for survival. As one can easily see from this list, which by far does not contain all peptides that fulfill important tasks in the human body, all life in the human body would come to a standstill within a very short time without a smooth and undisturbed process of the peptide bonds.
Even minimal disruptions in individual areas can have dire consequences. However, peptides are also increasingly used to treat many diseases. This includes cancer therapy, but also the treatment of diabetes or obesity.
There are also peptides that can replace antibiotics, for example if there is an over-sensitivity to antibiotics. Even with the artificial peptide synthesis that is used to produce these drugs, it is important that the peptide bond required for this can work properly.
A serious condition that is related to a broken peptide bond is diabetes. In this case, the pancreas does not make enough of its own insulin available. The transport of glucose can then no longer proceed properly and the entire carbohydrate metabolism is disrupted. If the disorder becomes severe enough to cause lactic acidosis, it can be fatal. When making insulin to treat this condition, the peptide bond is important in the laboratory.
If there is a disruption in the formation of calcitonin and / or parathyroid hormone in the body, this leads to a disruption in the entire calcium metabolism. Not only the skeleton would be damaged and brittle. The entire cell metabolism could also come to a standstill, because the regular influx of calcium into human cells is essential for survival.
A disturbance in the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which fulfills a vital function in the central nervous system, could very quickly be fatal. Certain poisons attack this neurotransmitter. This includes some snake venom. Many poisons also attack the calcium channels and thus prevent the corresponding peptides from developing their effect.
Heat, the effects of heavy metals in the body, radioactive radiation such as the effects of certain salts or an excessively high concentration of alcohol can also prevent the smooth formation of peptides and the associated peptide bonds from proceeding properly. Many dangerous substances generally classified as drugs interfere with the functioning of the neurotransmitters and thus the formation of these vital peptides, including the peptide bond.
Research on schizophrenia is currently debating whether a disorder related to the neurotransmitter glutamate plays a role. In this case, too, it is possible that the structure of this important peptide and its peptide bond does not proceed properly.