Of the sniff is by far the most common internal nasal disease. A large number of different forms are summarized under the term "runny nose". The individual causes are also very different.
Forms of runny noseThe runny nose is by far the most common disease of the inside of the nose. Cold can be divided into acute and chronic forms, but better still according to their cause.
Basically, the cold can be divided into acute and chronic forms of the cold, but better still according to their cause. Thus, within the acute forms, one knows the common cold, the cold in various infectious diseases, the nervous cold - and here especially the hay fever.
Within the chronic, on the other hand, the rhinitis in inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses, those in specific diseases of the interior of the nose, for example tuberculosis and syphilis, and the rhinitis in tumor diseases of the inside of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. In the following, the acute forms of the cold will be dealt with in more detail.
Acute runny nose
In acute colds, one must see an inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane, which leads to increased secretion of the nasal mucous membrane: the glands embedded in the mucous membrane secrete more secretions than usual, and the blood circulation is also increased. Due to the existing erectile tissue mechanism, this leads to a kind of congestion in the vessels, especially in the area of the turbinates, and thus causes the turbinates to increase in size and at the same time a narrowing of the nasal cavity, so that it is difficult or impossible to get air through the nose. So the two most important symptoms of the runny nose are given.
Nervous, vasomotor rhinitis
Another form of cold is the nervous or vasomotor cold, which strictly speaking cannot be counted among the acute forms. As is known, the most important functions of the nasal mucous membrane, swelling and swelling and secretion, are subject to the autonomic nervous system.
Disturbances of this system, caused by the most diverse internal factors, can be answered by the nasal mucous membrane with an increased ability to react, which manifests itself in sneezing fits, abundant watery secretion and more or less blocked nose. This ailment, in which periods completely free of symptoms alternate at will with those of the reactions just described, is quite persistent, even if in no way threatening.
Allergic runny nose
Closely related to this is the allergic runny nose, which is triggered by the particular hypersensitivity of the nasal mucous membrane with a simultaneous increased ability to react to substances from the outside world. The number of these substances is extremely large. For example, house dust, bed feathers, mattress fillings and the like, skin flakes from animals, industrial dust, especially flour, also wood, leather and drug dust, powder and perfumeries are possible; in rarer cases strawberries, raspberries, tomatoes and other types of fruit, chemicals and much more.
Of the allergic diseases, hay fever has been the longest and best researched until now. It is caused almost exclusively by grass pollen, mainly that of the windflower. The flowering time of the various hay fever plants is not exactly the same, and the landscape is also different, which means that the hay fever period is also conditioned.
The symptoms of hay fever are essentially the same as those of nervous rhinitis, that is, cold attacks with sneezing attacks and strong watery secretion from the nose. The eyes are almost always involved, which manifests itself in light sensitivity, tingling and scratching, reddening of the conjunctiva, often also of the eyelids, through heavy tears and often in eyelid swelling.
Usually the symptoms appear suddenly and quickly develop to their full strength. However, some patients do not react as stormily. With them there are sometimes several days in which only the general condition is disturbed before the full clinical picture develops. The allergic runny nose is therefore a complex term for which the most diverse allergens must be held responsible. Finding this out is extremely difficult and requires great patience on the part of the patient as well as the doctor.
In general, it can be said that allergic rhinitis, especially hay fever, is in no way a life-threatening disease. No one dies of hay fever, and it doesn't shorten life either.
If up to now the acute runny nose was counted among the so-called colds, today, according to the latest findings, one has to see it as a virus symptom. Not too long ago the cold virus, which had long been suspected, was finally detected and bred. It is a recognized fact that the frequency of the cold varies according to the season, as well as the fact that the influence of the weather plays a certain role in its development. According to this we have to look to the cooling or cold of the organism as a favorable condition for a cold virus infection, although the cold need not be an absolute precondition.
You can find your medication here➔ Medicines for colds and nasal congestion
Diseases with this symptom
- Pet hair allergy
- Pseudo croup
- Mold allergy
- Nasal polyps
- whooping cough
- hay fever
- Sinus inflammation
- House dust allergy
An old rule of thumb is that the acute cold lasts about nine days; for three days it is on the rise, for three days it blooms, and in the remaining three days it subsides. This is generally the case, but it can also take a different course, depending on the constitution of the organism and the type of cold virus strain.
Although the clinical picture varies, it usually begins with general symptoms such as shivering or freezing, slight increases in temperature and tiredness. There is also a noticeable need for sleep, reluctance to do intellectual work, pressure and a feeling of fullness in the skull. The nose is often itchy or prickly, which leads to frequent sneezing.
After the initial dryness in the nose and pharynx, the nose swells up, and finally there is a considerable flow of secretion, which initially has a watery character. This can last for several days, until the secretion becomes purulent and tough and gradually disappears as the runny nose subsides. Long-lasting, yellowish-green, purulent nasal discharge and persistent headache indicate that the paranasal sinuses are also affected. Predominantly one or both maxillary sinuses can be affected.
The odor disorders that occur when sniffing are caused by the swelling of the nasal mucus. Headaches also arise from the state of swelling, which is caused by the obstruction of the ducts of the paranasal sinuses and the impaired ventilation as a result. Dull hearing or a feeling of pressure in one or both ears are the result of insufficient ventilation of the middle ear, caused by the inflammation spreading to the nasopharynx and the tubes.
Lighter forms disappear as the runny nose subsides, while stronger forms can be more sustainable and require specialist treatment. The same is true if the sinuses are affected. It is not uncommon for an acute otitis media to develop on the way of the tube or ear trumpet that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx - i.e. with the outside world. This requires separate treatment, while the uncomplicated cold does not necessarily have to be treated by a specialist.
Healthy people are nasal breathers and it has long been known that the nose plays the main role as the gateway to a large number of infectious diseases. Flu, measles, scarlet fever, rubella, angina, but also certain diseases of the meninges and polio - to name just a few. It is in the way the nasal mucous membrane reacts that it reacts with a cold when infected by these different types of microbes, i.e. with increased secretion, swelling of the mucous membrane and the corresponding general complaints.
The course of such forms of cold does not differ significantly from the common cold. Usually it is only of a fleeting nature. However, it can also extend over a longer period of time during the respective infectious disease. From this point of view, the runny nose is a symptom, especially in childhood, from which many things can develop. In the best case scenario, a common virus cold.
A cold is usually harmless, but it can also lead to various complications. A common secondary disease is inflammation of the sinuses or the middle ear. Laryngitis or an inflammation of the trachea and bronchial tubes can occur less frequently, depending on the severity of the cold, the patient's constitution and the accompanying symptoms.
Acute colds have an impact on wellbeing and performance. Those affected usually feel weak and tired, which increases the risk of other complications and the development of mental illnesses. The weakened immune system can also lead to dizziness, fatigue and the spread of the disease. Chronic colds not only put a considerable strain on the immune system in the long term.
The mouth and throat area are also stressed by typical treatment measures. A possible complication of a runny nose is painful redness and inflammation in the area of the nose. The feeling of illness also puts a strain on the psyche and inhibits brain activity, and, similar to other viral infections, depression can result and further complications as a result. Although severe complications from a cold are unlikely, any cold should be discussed with your doctor.
When should you go to the doctor?
In most cases, a common cold does not require medical treatment. The runny nose usually occurs as an accompanying symptom of a cold or flu and therefore does not require medical treatment. It then disappears again when the underlying disease has been treated. Those affected can then consult a doctor if they want to alleviate the symptoms of the runny nose. Various means are also available from the pharmacy for this purpose. However, if the runny nose persists for a long time and occurs after the flu has healed, a doctor should be consulted. A visit to the doctor is also necessary in the event of inflammation and infections.
Those affected who suffer from allergies or intolerance can also consult a doctor to narrow down the allergy so that a cold does not occur at certain times of the year. Persistent runny nose can have negative effects on the nose and lungs and should therefore be avoided. With common flu or the common cold, the symptom is harmless and usually goes away without medical attention.
Doctors & therapists in your area
Treatment & Therapy
There are currently no special medications to combat the common cold. Only nasal drops or nasal sprays reduce the effect of the cold, sometimes considerably. First and foremost, however, it is important to alleviate the general symptoms, which can only be done by decongesting the nasal mucous membrane. The best way to do this is to use the so-called nasal drops, which allow air to pass through the nose for several hours.
Furthermore, you should drink a lot so that the mucus and bacteria can drain out of the nose quickly. Physical exertion should be avoided if it is professional. Bed rest is usually not necessary.
Outlook & forecast
A cold is mostly harmless. Usually symptoms subside after three to five days; In the case of poor hygiene, an underlying infection and in other exceptional cases, recovery can take several weeks or months.
If a cold is delayed, another flu-like infection can develop, which is associated with the typical flu symptoms and reduces the prospect of a quick recovery. In rare cases, a chronic cold can develop as a result, with a number of permanent symptoms. Possible side effects such as a high fever or sore throat and ear pain also influence the prognosis.
In general, however, a cold is not a major nuisance and usually subsides without long-term complications. A severe course is rather unlikely and is rarely associated with major health risks. In the case of normal colds, such as those that occur in the context of a cold, a quick healing can usually be assumed.
A runny nose as an accompanying symptom of a very serious underlying condition (HIV infection, Ebola, etc.) requires extensive clarification by a specialist before a final prognosis can be made.
As already mentioned, the runny nose is infectious. The virus is transmitted to other people through droplets, most commonly sneezing. A cold leaves no immunity, which means that after a cold you are not immune to a new cold. A lot of sport and exercise in the fresh air, a sauna and a healthy, varied diet can help prevent a cold, as well as a cold.
You can find your medication here➔ Medicines for colds and nasal congestion
Home remedies & herbs for colds
other home remedies ↵ for a cold
- To prevent colds, we recommend a facial steam bath, made from 5 liters of chamomile tea and 6 tablespoons of ribwort juice. It is mixed and placed on the table in a saucepan while still boiling. Then the steam is vigorously inhaled. Or warm 1 teaspoon of healing earth in the oven and put this remedy on your forehead, or put a drop of iodine tincture in a small glass of water and take a small sip several times during the day.
- Malve tea is a good remedy for colds and coughs.
You can do that yourself
A runny nose is one of the diseases that are particularly well suited to being treated with traditional home remedies. The most important thing is to keep the mucous membranes of the nose as moist as possible. In this way, the cold can fulfill its function of removing viruses and bacteria particularly well.
The moistening of the mucous membranes is basically possible in two ways. On the one hand, as part of the local application, by rinsing the nose with a self-made salt solution (about 1 teaspoon to 1 l of lukewarm water) or, for example, inhaling freshly brewed sage tea with a cloth over the head. On the other hand, increasing the amount of water you drink helps ensure that the nasal mucous membrane does not dry out and that pathogens do not have rough spots to dock on. In addition to water, herbal teas are particularly suitable here. In this context, too, sage tea is particularly recommended because sage has a slightly disinfecting effect. This is helpful if an infection of the throat and pharynx has developed in addition to the cold.
Particularly stubborn colds that are stubbornly stubborn in the paranasal sinuses and frontal sinus can often be resolved with a household red light. This process can be effectively supported if the room air is always kept moist by a bowl of water on the heater, especially at night.