A Dysphonia or Voice disorder is mainly shown in the fact that the so-called phonation or articulation ability of the voice can be temporarily impaired in people of all age groups.
Schematic representation of the anatomy of the vocal cords and their various diseases. Click to enlarge.
Be part of a definition Voice disorders (dysphonia) referred to as an altered sound of the voice. The voice disorders are characterized by the fact that the person's normal voice sounds different than it was before this pathological impairment.
Numerous forms are identified within the voice disorders that are also currently relevant. In particular, people who are stressed in their voices can suffer from varying voice disorders.
Some types of voice disorders are natural, while others are acquired. As a rule, there are abnormalities in voice production, which can be expressed not only in articulation, but also in physical-organic complaints.
The causes of the Voice disorders are favored in the physiology of the human being as and in an overload of the vocal apparatus by external influences and by an unfavorable way of speaking. In addition, organic impairments of the larynx and the vocal cords trigger the voice disorders (dysphonia).
During puberty, voice disorders occur in boys in connection with the voice change and after menopause due to hormonal changes in women.
So-called usogene causes are determined by the fact that the voice is not used correctly. In particular, prolonged and loud talking, pressing the voice and improper strain on the vocal cords can contribute to the development of voice disorders. The vocal cord nodules are the main cause of dysphonia.
Voice disorders can also be caused by inflammatory changes in the vocal cords, tumors and paralysis in the vocal apparatus or in the larynx and in harmony with colds. The causes of voice disorders (dysphonia) can also be based on the psyche.
Voice disorders are usually accompanied by symptoms that are fairly straightforward and clear. In many cases, the underlying disease is irritation of the vocal cords. Typical symptoms are a severe sore throat and a clearly audible hoarseness in the affected person. In addition, there may be difficulty swallowing, so that affected people are very limited in everyday life.
If such a clinical picture remains completely untreated, further unpleasant symptoms can arise. In addition to the sore throat, there is a purulent cough. This is very difficult to cough up, so that the voice disorders will worsen. The symptoms that occur can only be alleviated by taking appropriate medication.
Voice disorders can arise due to various underlying diseases. In most cases, there is a bacterial infection that causes a voice disorder. If you do not visit the doctor, you can expect a considerable worsening of the symptoms.
The sore throat and difficulty swallowing increase considerably, so that food intake is severely impaired. In addition, pus forms in the throat area, which occurs more often at night. If, on the other hand, you opt for medical and drug treatment, you can expect the individual symptoms to subside quickly.
Those affected sue Voice disorders a limited ability to speak and an unusual sound of the voice. The voice is smoky, scratchy, sounds rough or shrill or suffers from a lack of sound and becomes quieter. In addition to classic side effects such as the urge to clear the throat, the urge to swallow, a sore throat, throat irritation and a feeling of dryness, there is pressure in the area of the vocal apparatus.
The diagnosis of voice disorders (dysphonia) is made by listening to the voice, examinations by the ear, nose and throat doctor and by further laryngoscopy. In addition, a survey of the person affected can provide important information for a clear diagnosis of the voice disorders (dysphonia). During a laryngoscopy, the larynx is mirrored, i.e. viewed directly with an appropriate device.
Voice disorders can occur for many different reasons, and potential complications can also arise. In most cases, voice disorders arise due to an infection, so that different side effects can occur at the same time. These accompanying symptoms include persistent and stabbing headaches, nausea, vomiting and a high temperature.
If these side effects go completely without medical treatment, then the symptoms will worsen considerably. A severe sore throat is also a complication that can often be associated with a voice disorder. If an existing sore throat is left without any treatment, then it can even lead to the formation of pus fluid.
The affected person will find it very difficult to speak as any strain on the vocal cords will cause severe pain. The pus that occurs may settle in the throat, making it very difficult to cough up. If a doctor is consulted when pain occurs while speaking, possible complications can be avoided early or effectively combated.
In the worst case, even permanent damage can remain if a visit to the doctor is omitted. For this reason, medical or drug treatment is sensible and essential if possible complications are to be avoided.
If the person concerned suffers from a sore throat, disorders of the swallowing act or a feeling of tightness in the throat, a doctor should be consulted. If the pronunciation can no longer take place as usual, there is a health impairment that must be diagnosed and treated. If food can no longer be ingested and consumed as usual, there is a need for action. A scratchy throat, harsh voice, or loss of normal vocal strength is an illness. If there is a cough, sputum or swelling in the throat, a doctor is needed to clarify the cause.
If unwanted background noises occur while speaking, if the voice color changes or if the person concerned has no control over the flow of the voice, a doctor should be consulted. If emotional or mental irregularities arise due to the voice disorders, the person concerned needs help. Sleep disturbances, an inner restlessness, or a general malaise are signs of an existing health impairment.
If the symptoms persist for a long time or if they worsen over the course of several days, a doctor should be reported on the observations. Fatigue, a decrease in normal performance and internal weakness are further signs of an existing illness. In order to be able to create a treatment plan, a diagnosis is required.
For the therapy of Voice disorders In addition to medicinal treatments, surgical treatments and voice therapy methods are recommended. These depend on the extent of the dysphonia. In some cases, the voice disorders cancel themselves out again. If the voice disorders are organic, operations to remove vocal cord nodules or polyps from the vocal cords, for example, can also promise success.
To treat vocal cord paralysis as a cause of the voice disorders, voice exercises or electrotherapy procedures are used to treat them. If the vocal apparatus is damaged, voice and breathing exercises are useful therapeutic measures against dysphonia.
In addition, in some cases psychotherapeutic treatments can also be helpful to treat the voice disorders caused by mental problems. In many cases, a combination of appropriate applications is suitable to cure the dysphonia permanently.
An important component to being acquired Voice disorders Prevention is an efficient use of the voice in everyday life that is as gentle as possible for the vocal part. This concerns in particular the avoidance of overloading the vocal cords as a prophylaxis of voice disorders.
Especially in jobs with permanent strain on the voice, it is necessary to learn special speaking and breathing techniques in order to prevent voice disorders. Other ways to avoid dysphonia in good time are reduced tobacco consumption and prolonged stay in environments that are heavily contaminated with dust. Very hot or spicy dishes and drying out of the mucous membranes should also be avoided.
Sometimes unconscious processes such as clearing the throat and coughing as well as constant quiet talking have a very beneficial effect on the development of voice disorders (dysphonia). You should therefore speak clearly and in pauses.
If the voice disorder has to be treated with a surgical procedure, for example if vocal cord nodules are present, follow-up care follows. Voice rehabilitation takes place. In the first 10 to 14 days after the operation, it is important to consistently protect your voice. After this rest phase, special voice exercise therapy should begin.
It is necessary in order to bring the affected voice back to the usual stress level. The timely start of exercise therapy plays an important role. It can have a negative impact on the voice if the treatment starts too early or is carried out too intensively.
As part of voice therapy, the patient is freed from the overpressure patterns that arise in his voice. Even after the procedure, the hyperfunctional vocal patterns that were often the cause of the voice disorder are basically still present. In order to restore the physiological voice function in the long term, differentiated voice exercise treatments are required.
In order to rule out the risk of a renewed voice disorder, the follow-up treatment must not be too short and must be of appropriate quality. The focus of the therapy is on the response of the voice to the exercises and the results of the vocal sound.
Voice disorders can occur for a variety of reasons throughout life. For this reason, they should be viewed as a natural process by everyone. It is part of human development that the color of the voice and the pronunciation change several times over the life span. If the affected person perceives the changes as unpleasant, he should be aware at the beginning that it is often a temporary phenomenon. They occur in phases of hormonal changes or during illness and usually regulate themselves within a few weeks or months.
If the irregularities persist, speech therapy therapy can help. In addition, you can work independently on changing the vocal environment outside of the treatment hours. Targeted training and exercises help with changes and can be used independently by those affected. In addition, risk factors for changing the voice should be minimized. The consumption of nicotine in active or passive form leads to voice disorders. Therefore, areas where people smoke should be avoided.
Supportive measures can be taken at an early stage, especially at the turn of the year, in order not to suffer from a cold. There are a variety of methods that can result in improved voice color and strength. If the person concerned wants it, he can use this for himself.