Blood pressure describes the pressure in the arteries (arteries) of the body's circulation. With each heartbeat, it fluctuates between the maximum value (the systolic value) and the minimum value (the diastolic value). These values can be used with the Blood pressure measurement, a risk-free investigation.
The indirect blood pressure measurement carried out from outside was developed in 1896 by the Italian doctor Scipione Riva-Rocci.
The indirect blood pressure measurement carried out from outside was developed in 1896 by the Italian doctor Scipione Riva-Rocci. That is why it is still abbreviated today RR designated. This measurement is made indirectly using an inflatable cuff - usually on the patient's arm or leg. Today, however, some modern devices work with electronic pressure receivers.
In addition, blood pressure can now also be determined using a measuring transducer that is inserted directly into the bloodstream. This method is now known as direct blood pressure measurement and is only used in intensive therapy. This is used, for example, in intensive care units and in the operating theater in order to obtain results that are as accurate, fast and permanent as possible.
The actual blood pressure measurement is used to obtain more detailed information about the functions of the heart and the circulatory system. This can be necessary for various illnesses, but also for surgical interventions and other physical conditions (such as fainting). Which type of blood pressure measurement is more suitable in the individual case usually depends on the information requirement.
The best-known measuring method is still the indirect blood pressure measurement, which is used in most cases - for example for preventive medical checkups and many other examinations. A blood pressure monitor consists of a rubber sleeve that is inflatable and can therefore be adapted very precisely to the patient's arm or leg. The cuff is connected to a manometer and is always inflated so tightly that it no longer lets blood through at the docking point.
By releasing the air evenly, the pressure in the cuff is reduced in the second measurement step, so that, once a certain pressure has been reached, the heart can again press blood into the compressed artery. During this process, it is possible to use a stethoscope that is placed over the artery (on the upper arm, for example in the elbow), to listen to the flow noises of the blood. These sounds are caused by the accelerated flow of blood caused by the narrowing of the artery. These noises can now be evaluated very precisely on the basis of numerous available data and knowledge.
With direct blood pressure measurement, a measuring needle or a measuring probe is inserted directly into the blood flow. As a result, the blood flow itself is evaluated and all necessary information is determined from it. In some cases, this method is somewhat more precise and safer, but since there is a low risk here, it is only carried out during surgical interventions, under medical supervision and in specially equipped hospital wards.
Since many diseases show up in the early stages as a change in blood pressure, it is recommended to have this measured regularly and at least once a year by a specialist (e.g. your family doctor). In addition, many people regularly measure their blood pressure themselves and sometimes even keep records of the values determined.
This is especially useful if there are health reasons or if this has been recommended by your family doctor or another specialist. However, since measurement errors cannot be ruled out with self-measurement by a layperson, they are in no way a substitute for regular preventive examinations by a specialist or family doctor.
Incidentally, the normal blood pressure value averages 100 plus the patient's age. However, the blood pressure is dependent on various factors, for example on the physical condition, the time of day and also the season and can therefore fluctuate throughout the day. In addition, the measured values can vary from blood pressure monitor to blood pressure monitor.
Indirect blood pressure measurement is considered to be risk-free and therefore usually does not involve any side effects or dangers. The only risk is incorrect measurements and thus incorrect values if the measurement is not carried out correctly.
Since this often happens when taking measurements at home, for example due to a lack of knowledge or inadequate measuring devices, in the worst case it could mean that too high or too low blood pressure is not detected in time - and thus also the cause behind it plugged. That is why the regular measurements by the family doctor mentioned above are important.
The correct use of the blood pressure monitor can also be learned by a layperson. Numerous general practitioners and specialists offer special consultations here, in which they go through the existing measuring devices and all the necessary processes that must be observed when measuring blood pressure, step by step. This is particularly useful in cases in which the patient should regularly measure his or her blood pressure himself and record it for the doctor.
Last but not least, it also depends on the blood pressure monitor itself. Because the patient should be able to operate it, the cuff should be easy and comfortable to attach and the blood pressure value should be easy to read off the display. But since not every measuring device is the right device for every patient, the patient should ideally seek professional advice when choosing a suitable blood pressure monitor - for example from specialist staff in the medical supply store or in a trusted pharmacy.