A Kidney cyst is a fluid-filled cavity in or on the kidney. If several cysts form, one speaks of one Cyst kidney. Isolated kidney cysts form sporadically (randomly), whereas the cyst kidney is hereditary.
If the kidney cysts appear individually, usually no symptoms or discomfort develop. The growths often go unnoticed for many years.
A Kidney cyst is a sac-like or blister-like swelling within the kidney or in its surrounding area. The outside of the kidney cyst consists of smooth skin, inside there is a cavity that is filled with fluid.
If such cysts only appear sporadically, they are harmless and do not cause any symptoms. If, on the other hand, multiple cysts form within the kidney, known as the cyst kidney, the function of the kidney can be impaired. A cyst kidney causes a variety of symptoms and can lead to kidney failure. They are usually hereditary and are among the most common hereditary diseases.
The individual kidney cyst is also a common kidney malformation. Children are rarely affected, but the likelihood that a kidney cyst will develop increases with age.
Isolated Kidney cysts often form for no apparent cause. This is known as idiopathic origin. The cyst kidney, on the other hand, is hereditary in most cases. There is a gene mutation on chromosome no.16, more rarely also on chromosome no.4.
A distinction is made between autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance. Both occur in the cyst kidney. With autosomal dominant inheritance, the disease is passed on to the child even if only one parent passes the mutated gene on.
In the case of autosomal recessive inheritance, the cyst kidney only develops in the offspring if both parents are carriers of the defective gene. This means that even if one parent passes on the genetic defect, the child will not develop the disease because the other parent's healthy gene can take over its task completely.
However, cyst kidneys can also result from long-term dialysis. Dialysis is a blood purification process that does the job of sick or weak kidneys.
If the kidney cysts appear individually, usually no symptoms or discomfort develop. The growths often go unnoticed for many years. Larger cysts show pain in the kidney area. In the further course there may also be swelling and blood in the urine. Cystic kidneys always cause symptoms in the long term.
The damage to the kidney tissue can lead to high blood pressure and urinary tract infections. Then there is a lot of blood in the urine or severe pain in the flanks that can spread to the back and stomach. The pain rarely reaches the hips and lower back. The symptoms lead to chronic kidney failure in childhood.
This manifests itself in acute pain, indigestion and an increasing feeling of illness. Many patients suffer from exhaustion and a reduction in mental and physical performance. If it is a medullary spongy kidney, no symptoms occur for a long time. The disease often only manifests itself after years, when the disturbed coagulation leads to the formation of urinary stones.
After that, symptoms such as colic and kidney pain appear. The signs of the disease take a gradual course and in extreme cases lead to kidney failure. If the kidney cysts or cyst kidneys are treated surgically and with medication at an early stage, the symptoms will almost completely disappear.
Separate Kidney cysts usually do not cause any symptoms and often go undetected. They are usually only discovered by chance during an ultrasound examination (sonography), during a CT (computed tomography) or through an X-ray examination.
In rare cases, the kidney cyst may become inflamed. Such an infection can cause a variety of symptoms, such as blood in the urine, lower side back pain, and inflammation of the kidneys and urinary tract.
With a cyst kidney, the kidney enlarges over time and urinary tract infections with blood in the urine occur repeatedly.Patients suffer from pain in the kidney area, they feel less efficient and often have high blood pressure. In the autosomal dominant inherited cyst kidney, the cyst formation often spreads to other organs, such as the lungs, spleen or liver.
Heart valve defects are sometimes associated with this condition. In the case of autosomal recessive inheritance, the symptoms appear in early childhood and lead to kidney failure at an early stage. If cyst kidneys are suspected due to the symptoms, imaging tests (ultrasound, X-ray, CT) are used, as well as blood tests and a kidney examination (renoscopy).
Simple kidney cysts usually do not require treatment. They often do not cause any symptoms and are harmless. However, kidney cysts larger than ten centimeters can cause stomach and back pain, kidney colic and digestive problems. Cysts can also become infected and lead to abscess formation. Furthermore, cracks or hemorrhages can develop in the cysts. These can cause considerable pain.
In such cases, surgery may be required to relieve the pain. Cysts with a thick blood-supplying cell wall must also be removed in the course of an operation. Such kidney cysts could have parts of malignant tissue. These degenerate cysts could subsequently develop into malignant kidney tumors.
If cysts accumulate and displace healthy kidney tissue in the process, this can be an indication of congenital and inherited cyst kidneys. This can cause serious complications. Those affected feel massive flank, back and stomach pain. In addition, there is often a reddish discoloration of the urine. Affected people increasingly suffer from urinary tract infections such as kidney and bladder infections.
This inflammation is accompanied by painful urination and occasionally with a fever. The cysts also promote the development of kidney stones and high blood pressure. The congenital cyst kidney can damage the kidney so much in the long term that it is only functional to a limited extent. Those affected then have kidney failure, which can lead to kidney failure.
Kidney pain, blood in the urine, and high blood pressure suggest a kidney cyst. Such a growth must be diagnosed and treated quickly to avoid the formation of further cysts. If there are other complaints, such as recurring urinary tract infections or intestinal diverticula, the sick person should speak to the family doctor immediately. People who have an unhealthy lifestyle and who regularly consume alcohol or other drugs, for example, are at increased risk of developing a kidney cyst. The use of certain medications as well as chemotherapy or radiation treatments can also cause a kidney cyst.
Affected people should have the symptoms clarified immediately. This is especially necessary if the cyst has already caused severe discomfort. A kidney cyst can be diagnosed by a general practitioner. The treatment is carried out by various specialists such as nephrologists or gastroenterologists. Large growths need to be removed in the hospital. In addition to symptomatic treatment, patients should consult a nutritionist and work out a diet with him. Emotional triggers can be identified and treated as part of psychological counseling.
A Kidney cyst Usually does not require any treatment as it does not cause any discomfort. Only if the cyst is very large will it be punctured. A hollow needle is used to pierce the tumor and the liquid is sucked off. The substance is then examined in a laboratory for possible pathogens and their composition.
The cyst kidney cannot be treated curatively because the cause lies in the genes. Pain-relieving medication can be administered to relieve pain. If the cysts are very large, a puncture will also provide relief and reduce pain. In the long run, however, the kidneys will no longer be able to fulfill their function due to the large number of cysts, and the blood must be cleaned using dialysis.
There are two different procedures, hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). In hemodialysis, which is more commonly used, the blood outside the body is cleaned using an artificial kidney and then returned to the body. With peritoneal dialysis, the blood inside the body is filtered through the patient's peritoneum. However, dialysis cannot replace kidney function in the long term and in most cases it is only used as a temporary solution until a suitable organ is available for a kidney transplant.
The prognosis of a kidney cyst can be very different. Normally, no further medical care is necessary as there are no symptoms and the cyst is harmless in appearance. Often it remains undetected for a longer period of time and then detaches independently. It is automatically removed from the body and does not require any further medical activities.
In the event of hereditary development of kidney cysts, however, these should be observed by a doctor and checked regularly. Here the risk of complications and the development of various complaints increases. Due to genetics, cysts repeatedly develop in the kidney area in the course of life. With an unfavorable further development, these can lead to various complaints and health impairments. If the cyst grows in an unfavorable region, it will be removed as quickly as possible by a small surgical procedure.
In some patients, the existing kidney cyst will mutate. This is usually the case when the kidney cyst remains in the organism for several years. With such a development, the prognosis is considerably worse. If left untreated, the malignant tissue change leads to the development of kidney tumors. At an advanced stage of the disease, these can lead to the affected person's premature death. Therefore, they must be surgically removed at an early stage.
Against Kidney cysts cannot be prevented. However, if there are already cases of cystic kidneys in the family, it is advisable to use genetic tests to examine whether a gene mutation is present.
In the case of a kidney cyst, the patient usually has no or very few and limited direct follow-up measures available. For this reason, the patient should ideally consult a doctor at an early stage so that there are no other complications or complaints. Therefore, the early detection and treatment of this disease is in the foreground.
As a rule, self-healing cannot occur, so that those affected are always dependent on medical treatment. The kidney cyst can be relieved relatively easily by surgery. In any case, the person affected should rest and rest after such an intervention, whereby exertion or stressful physical activities should be avoided.
Regular checks and examinations by a doctor are also necessary after the procedure in order to identify further complaints at an early stage. In many cases, a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet can also have a positive effect on the further course of this disease. Those affected should drink a lot. Whether the kidney cyst will lead to a reduced life expectancy for the person affected cannot generally be predicted.
In addition to medical and medical care, patients who suffer from kidney cysts should independently initiate measures to alleviate their symptoms. Good and healthy lifestyle habits help with the recovery process and can have a preventative effect in the further course.
Refraining from alcohol, nicotine and drugs is particularly important. These pollutants and toxins have a negative effect on kidney function and worsen the general state of health even more. Consuming sufficient fluids is important so that pathogens and dead tissue cells can be removed from the organism. The recommended minimum amount is usually two liters of fluid per day. Consumption of natural fruit juices or non-carbonated water is advisable. The consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is also highly recommended for building up the body's defenses and stabilizing the immune system. Adequate physical activity and the supply of oxygen also promote the patient's health.
When eating, the consumption of raw meat should be avoided completely. Every 2-3 days you can drink a glass of water enriched with a teaspoon of baking soda after dinner. Soda is an important everyday companion and has an antibacterial effect on the organism. It therefore increases general well-being and has a health-promoting effect.