Of the Rossolimo reflex is a plantar muscle reflex of the foot, which is triggered under pathological conditions. It represents an uncertain pyramidal orbit sign and indicates lesions in the pyramidal orbit.
The Rossolimo reflex is a plantar muscle reflex of the foot that is triggered under pathological conditions.
The Rossolimo reflex is triggered by a blow to the plantar muscles of the foot and is characterized by the flexion of the foot or the toes in the direction of the sole of the foot. It is a plantar muscle reflex that occurs in pathological conditions. It represents an uncertain pyramidal trajectory sign. If this reflex occurs, the pyramidal trajectory may be damaged. However, since the pyramidal orbit is closely connected to the extrapyramidal system, disturbances can also be present at this point.
The Rossolimo reflex was discovered by the Russian neurologist Grigorij Rossolimo (1860 to 1928). Together with the Piotrowski reflex and the dorsal reflex, it is one of the plantar muscle reflexes. The plantar muscle reflexes are, in turn, one of the so-called pyramidal trajectories.
Pyramidal orbit signs are self-reflexes and are considered neurological symptoms that occur due to damage to the pyramidal orbit. There are special pyramidal trajectories for the upper and lower extremities. The Rossolimo reflex is a lower extremity reflex.However, among the large number of pyramidal trajectories of the lower extremities, the Babinski reflex has the greatest importance. The expressiveness of the other reflexes, including the Rossolimo reflex, is controversial and rather poor.
As already mentioned, the Rossolimo reflex is triggered under pathological conditions and indicates lesions in the pyramidal system. The pyramidal system controls the coordination of movements in mammals. However, it has the greatest importance in higher primates and in humans. It is a collection of central motor neurons whose nerve processes converge in the pyramidal tract.
The pyramidal path begins on both sides of the lower medulla oblongata with one strand each. 70 to 90 percent of the two strands cross between the posterior brain and the spinal cord. The remaining nerve fibers run in the anterior cord of the spinal cord and in sections cross the anterior horn. Some lanes do not cross. Through the intersection, nerve cords from the right hemisphere supply the left hemisphere and vice versa.
The pyramidal system is responsible for voluntary movements and mainly regulates fine motor skills. However, it works closely with the extrapyramidal system, which is the most important in most mammals. Nerves of the pyramidal system never innervate specific muscles and muscle groups directly, but always transmit their signals via the extrapyramidal system. Most pyramidal cells are small and can also be found outside the pyramidal system.
The skeletal muscles are supplied by the motor neurons (motor neurons). These are efferent nerve cells (nerve cells conducting from the brain to the muscles) that are responsible for voluntary and involuntary movements.
The motor neurons are in turn divided into lower and upper motor neurons. The abbreviation for the lower motor neurons is LMN and that for the upper motor neurons is UMN. The LMN are the actual signal transmitters for the muscles. The LMN can be viewed as the executive limb for all reflexes and movements. It belongs to the extrapyramidal system. The UMN is responsible for the conscious control of motor skills and belongs to the pyramidal system. Betz's giant cells play the biggest role here, despite being outnumbered. However, UMN never directly innervates the muscles or muscle groups. It forwards the signals to the LMN, which sends the impulses for movement to the corresponding muscles.
In the case of lesions in the pyramidal tract, the extrapyramidal system can take on many functions so that the failures do not appear large. The minor importance of the pyramidal system for most mammals means that damage can be completely compensated for here. In humans, voluntary motor skills are somewhat reduced in these cases, which may be expressed in restrictions in fine motor skills.
The Rossolimo reflex gives an indication of possible motor restrictions due to lesions in the pyramidal tract. However, it is an unsafe pyramid orbit sign. Its sole significance is not very high. In connection with other pyramid orbit signs, it can have an affirmative character.
The pyramidal system can be damaged by a stroke, among other things. The crossing of the pyramids often leads to paralysis of the opposite side of the body. However, the paralysis is usually not complete because the extrapyramidal system takes over many of the tasks of the pyramidal orbit. Nevertheless, so-called pyramidal trajectories appear, which are expressed by restrictions in fine motor skills, movements of various muscle groups or general clumsiness.
However, the cause of these symptoms can never be found in isolated damage to the pyramidal system. If such deficits occur, the extrapyramidal system is always also affected. If only the pyramidal tract was impaired, symptoms would hardly occur, since most of the functions are taken over by the other parts of the nervous system. It is questionable to what extent such minor disorders of fine motor skills can be determined by reflex examinations. In addition, the reflex arc of these reflexes is not known. A complete picture of the disorder can only be drawn with the help of the pyramid trajectory in connection with the investigation of the natural reflexes of one's own and others.