Both Spinal nerves they are important elements of the human nervous system. Different diseases can limit the function of the spinal nerves. In the case of existing complaints, medical help should be consulted within a short period of time in order to avoid serious disturbances.
In which Spinal nerve it concerns the nerve tracts in the spinal cord. The spinal nerve is located in the human vertebral canal and is responsible for the transmission of information between the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system includes both the voluntary and involuntary nervous systems:
Humans typically have 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Their names result from the respective names of the vortices that can be located above them. The spinal cord connects the spinal nerves to the brain. The length depends on the individual height. Nerve roots leave the spinal cord at regular intervals on both sides. Once they leave the spinal cord, they bundle into the spinal nerves. There are different diseases of the spinal nerves, which can have serious consequences.
The 31 to 33 pairs of spinal nerves slide through the intervertebral holes and run without interruption to the spinal cord division. This results in 8 cervical nerves, 12 chest nerves, 5 lumbar nerves, 5 sacral nerves and one coccyx nerve.
Spinal nerves are mixed nerves that contain motor, sensory and vegetative parts. The pairs are built up from an anterior and posterior nerve root. These are called efferent and afferent. The origin of the spinal nerve can be located in the center of the spinal cord. As soon as the nerve root emerges from the spinal canal, a few millimeters later it unites into a spiral nerve.
In the further course, three to four branches develop from the spiral nerves. The task of each branch is based on the motor or sensitive supply of certain body regions. The posterior nerve root, i.e. the afferent pathway, has a different function than the anterior nerve root. Because spinal nerves are both efferent and afferent, they are mixed nerves.
The task of the spiral nerves is to transmit information from the spinal cord, which comes from the central nervous system, to the affected organs, muscles or other physical elements. At the same time, information from organs and muscles is passed on to the spinal cord via the spiral nerves. The spinal cord can then transmit the information obtained to the central nervous system.
The efferent and afferent pathways are responsible for these two different tasks. The efferent part takes over the transmission of information from the spinal cord to the organs. The afferent parts, on the other hand, take in the information from muscles or organs and transport it in the opposite direction. In this way, for example, a muscle can be moved.
As soon as the central nervous system orders the activity of a muscle, the information reaches the spinal cord and then the efferent tract. The information is supplied to the corresponding muscle, whereupon it executes the desired movement. These tasks also include the regulation of organic body functions. The nerve tracts also determine the intestinal activity or the formation of digestive secretions.
Both an increase and a decrease in production or function can be established. With the afferent nerve pathway, on the other hand, stimuli such as touch are conveyed to the brain so that the person concerned perceives them. In addition to touch, the sense of touch, the sensation for temperature, pain and position is conveyed to the central nervous system. Organs can also express themselves in this way. The stomach can, for example, pass on how full it is. Each pair of spiral nerves is responsible for a specific region of the body.
The spiral nerves take on important functions in everyday life. As soon as different illnesses limit them, it is important to consult a doctor. Root syndrome is particularly common. This is a disease of the nerve root. Different causes ensure that the nerve root is damaged, from which the transmission of information is reduced.
Numerous complaints such as pain, paresthesia, sensory disorders and muscle weakness arise. In addition, deafness in certain areas of the body cannot be ruled out. Several factors have the potential to irritate the nerves. These include, for example, a herniated disc or spinal canal stenosis.
Most of the time, diseases of the spine cause a constriction, which crushes nerves. This cause is particularly common in the lower lumbar area or the region of the cervical vertebrae. In addition to irritation and bruises, there are also diseases that directly affect the spiral nerve. In most cases, diseases of this type are prone to inflammation.
Different pathogens can be responsible for inflammation, for example the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi or shingles. Guillain-Barré syndrome can also be responsible for inflammation. As soon as an inflammation of the nerve root occurs, this usually also affects the spiral nerve, which emerges from the nerve root.
Inflammation of a nerve root is called radiculitis. Once multiple nerve roots are inflamed, it is polyradiculitis. Because the inflammation of a nerve root is usually connected in parallel with the inflammation of the nerve, inflammation of the nerve often occurs at the same time, which is called neuritis.