From one Hypothermia one speaks when the normal body temperature of approx. 36-37 degrees Celsius has fallen below over a longer period of time (from 30 minutes). This can e.g. be the case after long bathing or swimming in the sea. Typical signs are then blue lips and tremors. From one Frostbite one speaks when the body temperature in certain body regions (e.g. fingers or toes) has fallen below freezing point. The cells then subsequently die. Typical signs are mostly bluish to black fingers or toes.
The first aid in case of hypothermia is heat retention, i. H. Cover or wrap the patient with a wool blanket. Never put a rescue blanket directly on the skin, it is then useless because of the lack of insulation. Click to enlarge.
The Hypothermia or Hypothermia must from Frostbite be delimited. In the case of hypothermia, the core body temperature is reduced, in the case of frostbite damage to the body tissue occurs as a result of local exposure to cold. Hypothermia is when the body temperature drops below 37 degrees Celsius.
There are two types of hypothermia: Accidental hypothermia leads to very rapid hypothermia, for example when breaking into ice water. In such a case, a person can survive a maximum of 60 minutes at a water temperature of 5 degrees Celsius. In the case of subacute accidental hypothermia, there is a gradual drop in body temperature over the course of hours, for example if buried in a snow avalanche. People affected by this form of hypothermia become tired, fall asleep and pass out. If the core body temperature drops further, death occurs.
A Hypothermia or hypothermia and those often associated with it Frostbite result primarily from a particularly low ambient temperature, the effect of which can be intensified by wind and moisture. Inappropriate or damp clothing and insufficient exercise can have a positive effect on hypothermia, as well as spending too long in cold water, an untrained circulation, a lack of body fat tissue and a poor general physical condition.
With hypothermia, the human body not only produces more heat, but also suppresses its release. Because the body's extremities take up a large part of the body's surface, they have a special regulating function in cases of hypothermia: the cold causes the blood vessels located there to contract; the supply of blood is thus throttled in order to primarily supply the torso area with the internal organs and to protect it from the consequences of hypothermia. In the event of hypothermia, this circulatory centering is an effective means of protecting the organism itself with the negative side effect of increasing the susceptibility of the extremities to frostbite.
The symptoms of hypothermia and frostbite differ depending on the severity of the impairment caused by exposure to the cold. General or specific signs may appear. A typical symptom is a decreased body temperature.
While the symptoms of frostbite affect specific areas or parts of the body, the signs of hypothermia show up more as a reaction of the whole body. Taking body temperature and other changes into account, the severity of hypothermia is divided into three phases. With a slight hypothermia, the affected person shows tremors and shivers in the active phase (defense stage).
The skin can also appear pale. A body temperature of 34 to 36 degrees Celsius can lead to an increased frequency of breathing and blood pressure. In the exhaustion phase due to moderate hypothermia, blood pressure and pulse decrease at a body temperature between 30 and 34 degrees Celsius.
In addition, there may be stiff muscles, bluish-gray skin, and drowsiness or confusion. Breathing becomes shallower and more irregular. In the third phase, the paralysis stage, the body temperature drops below 30 degrees Celsius. This can lead to unconsciousness or respiratory arrest as well as cardiovascular arrest. The severity of frostbite is assigned to three different degrees.
Signs of cooling, pale skin and pain in the slightly swollen areas indicate first-degree frostbite. In the case of second-degree frostbite, the reheated tissue shows reddening, swelling and blistering. If the affected tissue turns out after some time that it has already died, there is a third degree of frostbite.
At a Hypothermia and associated Frostbite the course depends on the severity of the exposure to cold and the treatment. The prognosis is favorable if the hypothermia is treated promptly and appropriately.
If the body temperature rises in time, hypothermia usually has no consequences. Unfortunately, hypothermia is often overlooked, especially when - for example in an accident - other complications are in the foreground. Delayed treatment of hypothermia can lead to serious damage to the organs, which in extreme cases can result in death.
Hypothermia or frostbite should not be underestimated. With severe hypothermia, also known as hypothermia, complications can occur. Lighter hypothermia, on the other hand, can be treated well. The same applies to mild frostbite.
Severe hypothermia or severe frostbite can lead to serious consequences. The extremities are particularly at risk. With severe hypothermia, delayed treatment can lead to a cardiac arrhythmia. Additional injuries that accompany hypothermia can, in the worst case, lead to death. This is especially true if hypothermia is not noticed in time, given the severity of the injury.
Accident patients who have an accident in the cold months of the year must therefore be kept warm. This is hardly possible with trapped patients. Cardiovascular failure and death threaten here. In the case of cold-related damage, the complications can vary depending on the degree of cold damage.
With blood-filled blisters and second-degree frostbite, there is an increased risk of infection if the blisters open. Third-degree frostbite often requires amputation of the affected limb. These often die off. If the frozen body part is not amputated in time, there is a risk of fatal sepsis.
Classic complications from hypothermia or frostbite are blackish discoloration of the skin, edema, chilblains, wound infections, thromboses due to thickened blood, hyper- and parakeratoses and tissue atrophy. Additional complications lie in improper or lacking first aid measures.
If the person concerned has been in a cool environment for a long time without adequate thermal protection, warming baths and a change in clothing are often sufficient. If he suffers from chills, freezes or complains of a general malaise, this should be monitored further. A doctor is not required if health well-being improves as a result of the measures taken in the area of self-help. In these cases, a sufficient supply of heat can lead to complete freedom from symptoms within a few minutes or a few hours.
Medical and health assistance is necessary if the irregularities last longer or increase in intensity. If there are functional disorders, if the body temperature is very low or if there are changes in the complexion, a medical examination should be carried out. A doctor should be presented with stiffening of the joints, inability to move or restricted mobility. A particularly pale complexion, irregular reactions and a general feeling of illness are indications of a health disorder.
Trembling of the limbs or the whole body, impaired sensation, and loss of internal strength are other signs that should be examined and treated. General speech recognition disorders, pain and neurological failures must be presented to a doctor as soon as possible. Since permanent damage can occur in severe cases, an emergency service should be alerted in acute cases.
Timely and appropriate therapy will favor the course of a Hypothermia strong. Hypothermia therefore requires quick action and consistent measures.
If the body is hypothermic, it is best to warm it up slowly in a warm room. A warming bath against hypothermia should start lukewarm and be warmed up to a maximum of 38 degrees by slowly adding hot water. In the case of severe frostbite, the person affected should not move independently but be transported; if blisters form, clinical treatment is essential. Existing blisters should never be opened, but covered with sterile material.
Affected extremities should be elevated but not moved too much; Avoid applying excessive pressure. Those affected should use the cold body parts on their own body if possible, e.g. B. in the armpit, or let someone else warm it on their body. In case of hypothermia and frostbite, no ointments should be used and no medication should be administered except, if necessary, acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. "aspirin")
Slight hypothermia can occur after a short period of time outdoors in unsuitable clothing. As a rule, however, it is sufficient to be in a room that is sufficiently heated afterwards. After a short time, the body temperature regulates itself back to normal. In the case of moderate hypothermia, the person affected should be brought into a warm room and given a warming blanket.
Hot drinks and a hot water bottle will also help bring body temperature back to normal. If even mild frostbite occurs, alcohol should not be administered under any circumstances. Alcohol dilates the blood vessels, which leads to an increased release of heat from the body and thus promotes hypothermia.
If someone is found freezing to death outdoors, it is important to keep them awake. The emergency doctor and ambulance must be notified. Until the rescue workers arrive, you should keep the person affected as warm as possible. This is done by wrapping it in a blanket or jacket.
People who break into frozen water in winter are in acute danger to their lives. A quick recovery is particularly important here. The rescuer should, however, be careful not to endanger himself. Until the emergency doctor arrives, the main thing here is to keep the rescued person awake and as warm as possible.
In the case of a slight hypothermia, which can already set in after a short stay in unsuitable clothing outdoors, it is usually sufficient to simply go back to a sufficiently temperature-controlled room. The body temperature then regulates itself. Sensitive people can prevent their hands and feet from getting cold in winter by using chemical heat pads.
In moderate cases, the person concerned should be brought into a warm room and wrapped in a blanket. Pouring in hot drinks and a hot water bottle also help to quickly bring the body temperature back to a normal level.
Under no circumstances should alcohol be served at the first symptoms of frostbite, as long as the person concerned is still outdoors. Alcohol dilates the blood vessels, which means that the remaining body heat is released even faster. Frostbite found outdoors must be awakened and kept awake until the ambulance or ambulance arrives. Wrapping in a warm blanket or jacket is also urgently required here.
People who break into the ice in winter are in acute danger of death and must be rescued immediately. The rescuer must be careful not to put himself in danger. As soon as the person has been taken out of the water, the same applies here that they should be kept awake and as warm as possible until the emergency doctor arrives.