Of the Thigh bone is the longest tubular bone in the human skeleton and is also known in the medical field as Femur designated. Anatomically, it can be divided into several sections and plays a major role in locomotion. The diseases that occur in this area are all the more decisive.
Due to its high density, the thigh bone (the femur) has a very high level of stability and strength. It is the strongest bone in the human joint system and forms the bony foundation of the thigh. Like all long bones, the thigh bone has a medullary cavity with associated bone marrow. As part of the lower limbs, the longest tubular bone in the body interacts directly with the lower leg and knee joint.
The thighbone connects to the pelvis via the hip joint. The femur is divided into the anatomical sections of the head of the femur, the femur neck, the femur shaft and the lower end of the long bone. The femur is also the starting point and attachment point for a wide variety of muscles.
The entire thigh bone consists of a solid protective layer and a filled cavity that is filled with soft tissue made from blood cells. As the name suggests, the head of the thigh is located at the top of the long bone. The head of the thigh has a spherical structure and forms the hip joint with the hip socket of the pelvis. The femoral head is supplied with blood through an artery that is securely enclosed by the femoral head fossa.
The femoral head is directly connected to the thighbone neck, which in adults is at 127 ° to the femoral shaft. There are two rolling hills at the tip of the femoral neck. While the large rolling hill is anatomically located on the outside, the small rolling hill is placed on the inside. Both rolling hills serve as a starting point for large muscle groups such as B. Hip flexors or arm spreader. The cylindrically shaped thighbone shaft is located directly below the femoral neck, on the back of which there is the so-called rough line. It mainly serves as a starting point for various muscle groups.
The rough line, also called Linea aspera, is itself divided into two ridges. These two ridges diverge at the upper and lower ends of the head of the femur and only come closer together again in the middle of the bone. Together with the shin, the two lower thigh rollers form the knee joint. The lower end of the thigh bone is divided into two articular knots, which, in contrast to the femoral shaft, are greatly thickened. Furthermore, they have an outward curvature. The cruciate ligament cavity, which in turn establishes contact with the kneecap, is located between the two separate articular cartilages.
As the largest bone in the human musculoskeletal system, the thigh bone takes on important functions in the body. The head of the femur forms the hip joint together with the acetabulum of the pelvis. The latter is anatomically a large ball joint. Furthermore, the lower joint surfaces of the thigh bone form the basis for the kneecap.
First and foremost, the main task of the thigh bone is the formation of the knee and hip joint. In addition, the spiral course of the joint surfaces relaxes the collateral ligaments when the knee joint is bent, so that internal and external rotation of the lower leg is possible. Standing and walking upright, as well as moving forward in steps, would not be possible without the perfect interplay of bones and joints. Since the thigh only consists of a single bone, it is particularly important that it is stable and stable.
Due to its robust consistency, the thigh bone is able to transfer the existing physical strength from the pelvis to the lower limbs. In the area between the femoral shaft and neck, on the back of the thigh bone, there is a larger and a smaller rolling hillock, which are used to insert the muscles.
The most common complaints, functional disorders or restrictions result from the anatomical structure as well as from the daily stress while moving. Due to the high level of stress, the thighbone is particularly affected by wear and tear diseases. The articular surfaces and articular cartilage of the thigh bone are most susceptible to signs of wear and tear and inflammation. Not only daily movement, but also congenital malpositions of the joint apparatus such as B. Hip dysplasia can lead to premature wear and tear on the femur.
Painful complaints, restricted mobility or even complete inability to move are usually triggered in old age by osteoarthritis of the knee or arthrosis of the hip joint. If the arthritic changes cannot be remedied by conservative therapy, the only option left for those affected is joint replacement. Severe falls with a resulting femoral neck fracture are not uncommon in older people. Since bone density decreases with age, there is a risk that even with light physical activity a break can occur between the femoral head and the femoral neck. Fractures in this area usually have to be treated surgically.
Another femoral fracture that typically occurs in old age is the fracture of the thigh near the knee. These are fractures above the joint rollers. Once the thigh bone is broken, the healing process is extremely difficult and fraught with complications. A rather rare fracture of the thigh bone is the femoral shaft fracture. This type of leg fracture is only possible with great effort. The statistically most common reason for a femoral shaft fracture is a car accident in which strong mechanical forces act on the bone.